18 SES 08, Developing Teachers Professional Identity: The contemporary physical education teacher
The world’s leaders set goals for the future of the global community (Transforming our world : the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development), goal 4 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) seeks to ensure “inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all” (UN General Assembly, 2015). UNESCO (2015) and other development partners are proposed that by 2030, all governments ensure that all learners are taught by qualified, professionally-trained, motivated and well-supported teachers, who use inclusive, gender-responsive and participatory pedagogical approaches to ensure effective learning outcomes (UNESCO Position Paper on Education Post-2015, 2014). Facing unprecedented challenges and opportunities, this generation requires new capacities. Whether in traditional or more entrepreneurial work environments, young people need to collaborate with others from different disciplines and cultures, in a way that solves complex problems and creates economic and social value (OECD, 2016a). Good-quality education is defined as equipping people with the skills, knowledge and attitudes to: obtain decent work; live together as active citizens nationally and globally; understand and prepare for a world in which environmental degradation and climate change present a threat to sustainable living and livelihoods; and understand their rights (UNESCO, and UNICEF, 2013).The effectiveness of professional development in preparing teachers is their ability to respond to different communities of students, potentially through different teaching strategies (OECD, 2016a).
Physical education is the most effective means of providing all children and youth with the skills, attitudes, values, knowledge and understanding for lifelong participation in society (The Declaration of Berlin, 2013).
Teachers are a key element in a child’s learning environment (UNICEF, 2013) and the key role teachers play for societal change (Education for Change - Change for Education, 2015). Teachers often serve as examples and sources of inspiration to their students (OECD, 2016b).
Teachers are encouraged to choose contents, situations, materials and a methodology to raise awareness and create learning opportunities. Physical education teachers’ education underlines the important role of Quality Physical Education in promoting individuals’ rounded development, particularly in terms of inclusive practices, current societal changes related to health, and the importance of encouraging participation in a healthy, active lifestyle (QPE Guidelines for policy makers, UNESCO, 2015).
Teacher’s quality should be an overall concept that comprises not only knowledge and skills, but also personal qualities - such as respect, care, courage, empathy, and personal values, attitudes, identity, beliefs, etc. – making quite evident the tight link between quality and teacher professional identity (Tateo, 2012). Identity is a socially and culturally constructed self that is formed during the life course by lived experiences and by talking about these experiences with oneself (inner speech) and with others (Swennen, Volman & Essen, 2008). Professional identity as social identity is one of the aspects of individual self-concept that is constructed in the social context through dialogue between self and external reality (Hermans & Dimaggio, 2007). From teacher’s perspective, this can be characterized by the sentence “You teach by who you are” (ICET, 2008). Metaphors are the mental structures reflecting individuals’ self-related beliefs, emotions and thoughts by means of which they understand and act within their worlds (Eren, Tekinarslan (2013). Metaphors reveal teachers’ educational values, beliefs and principles (Gillis, Johnson, 2002) and mirror teachers grow as professionals.
The aim of the study is to explore differences in the physical education pre-service and in-service teachers’ professional identity and understanding of quality of physical education.
Education for Change - Change for Education, Manifesto, (2015). Teacher manifesto for the 21st century of the conference „The Professional Image and Ethos of Teachers”, Council of Europe, 42 http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/education/pestalozzi/Source/Documentation/T21/FinalManifesto_En.pdf Eren, A., & Tekinarslan, E. (2013). Prospective teachers’ metaphors: Teacher, teaching, learning, instructional material and evaluation courses. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education, 3(2), 435–445 Gillis, C., & Johnson, C. L. (2002). Metaphor as renewal: re-imagining our professional, selves. The English Journal, 91(6), 37e43 Hermans, H., Dimaggio, G. (2007). Self, Identity, and Globalization in Times of Uncertainty: A Dialogical Analysis. Review of General Psychology, 11(1), 31-61 International Council on Education for Teaching – ICET. (2008, July 14-17). Learning, leading and linking: The impact of policy and research upon practice. Proceedings of the 53rd World. University of Minho, Braga, Portugal. McLennan N., Thompson J., (2015). Quality Physical Education (QPE): Guidelines For Policy Makers. UNESCO Publishing, Feb 2, 2015 - 90 p. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002311/231101E.pdf OECD. (2016a). Global competency for an inclusive world. Paris, France. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/pisa/aboutpisa/Global-competency-for-an-inclusive-world.pdf OECD (2016 b), Education at a Glance 2016: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-2016-en Recommendations to encourage physical education in schools, including motor skills in early childhood, and to create valuable interactions with the sport sector, local authorities and the private sector (2015). Expert Group on Health-enhancing physical activity, European Commission - 75 p. http://ec.europa.eu/transparency/regexpert/index.cfm?do=groupDetail.groupDetailDoc&id=19860&no=1 Swennen, A., Volman, M., van Essen, M. (2008). The development of the professional identity of two teacher educators in the context of Dutch teacher education. European Journal of Teacher Education, 31(2), 169-184 Tateo, L. (2012). What do you mean by “teacher”? Psychological research on teacher professional identity. Psicologia & Sociedade; 24 (2), 344-353, 2012 http://www.scielo.br/pdf/psoc/v24n2/11.pdf UNESCO, and UNICEF (2013). “Envisioning Education in the Post-2015 Development Agenda”. Executive Summary. Global Thematic Consultation on Education in the Post-2015 Development Agenda. http://en.unesco.org/post2015/sites/post2015/files/Post-2015_EN_web.pdf UN General Assembly, Transforming our world : the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, 21 October 2015, A/RES/70/1, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/57b6e3e44.html [accessed 12 January 2017]
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