28 SES 04 A, The Global Restructuring of Education Professions: Identities, careers, and new forms of regulation
How do French primary school teachers react to performance and accountability policies that have developed in recent years? To what extent are teachers’ social responsibility and professionalism redefined following these policies? To answer to these questions, we will examine the adoption of accountability measures (Dutercq & Cuculou 2013, Dutercq & Lanéelle 2013) and the development of tools to foster students’ achievements (Dutercq & Maleyrot 2017): programme personnalisé de réussite éducative, aide personnalisée, stage de remise à niveau, accompagnement éducatif, etc. These tools are linked to broader accountability instruments, such as national external evaluations, school project, skills personal booklet or status awarded to primary school principals. Then, we will examine how the responsibility attached to the traditional professionalism of primary school teachers is reshaped by the emergence of these new “dispositives” taking into account the French context characterized by self-regulation and “soft” accountability (Mons 2009, Maroy 2015). This conducts to different interpretations and usages of these tools which will lead us to examine the transformation of professional practices. Therefore, we will also question the professionalism claimed by the teachers which is in tension with the professionalism expected by the institution (Gewirtz et al., 2008). Indeed, although the policy of accountability is still mainly rhetorical in France (Pons 2014), the succession of measures and dispositives encourages teachers to (re) act in a context that we describe as “subjective accountability”. More specifically, teachers have to navigate between conditions of effectiveness and ethical legitimacy of the tools used.
Dutercq, Y. & Cuculou, S. (2013). La performance comme outil de gouvernance : quelles conséquences sur le travail des enseignants de lcole primaire ? In C. Maroy (Ed.), L'école à l'épreuve de la performance. Les politiques de régulation par les résultats (pp. 195-2010). Bruxelles: De Boeck. Dutercq, Y. & Lanéelle, X. (2013). La dispute autour des évaluations des élèves dans l’enseignement français du premier degré, Sociologie, 1-4, 43-62. Dutercq, Y. & Maleyrot, E. (2017, forthcoming). Le dispositif « Plus de maîtres que de classes » : un outil de responsabilisation et de remise en question du professionnalisme enseignant ? In Y. Dutercq & C. Maroy, Le travail et le professionnalisme enseignants face aux politiques de responsabilisation. Bruxelles: De Boeck. Gewirtz, S., Mahony, P., Hextall, I. et Cribb, A. Ed. (2008). Changing Teacher Professionalism. International Trends, Challenges and Ways forward. New York: Taylor & Francis. Maroy, C. (2015). Comparing Accountability Policy Tools and Rationales : Various Ways, Various Effects ? In H.-G. Kotthoff & E. Klerides (dir.), Governing Educational Spaces: Knowledge, Teaching and Learning in Transition (pp. 35-58). Boston, Rotterdam, Taipei: Sense Publishers. Mons, N. (2009). Theoretical and real effects of standardized assessment. Retrieved March, 16, 2010. .
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