04 SES 01 D, Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Attitudes Toward Inclusive Education
Due to the rising focus on inclusive education within the last decades, research about teachers’ self-efficacy (TSE) towards inclusive education has also grown immensely. Thus, first reviews of studies relating to TSE are already available. These reviews focus on identifying those variables influencing TSE as well as outcome variables (see e.g. Zee & Koomen, 2016). Further, such reviews revealed that research in the field understands TSE as a more global construct, rather than a construct that is context-, domain-, or student-specific. For instance, research into the student-specific variance of TSE is very limited but interest for researching more specific constructs of TSE is already evident in the field. Zee, Koomen, Jellesmaa, Geerlings and de Jong (2016), for example, examined interaction between members of dyads (in this case the one teacher – one student dyad) with regard to teachers’-self efficacy. Within two studies (Zee et al, 2016a; Zee, de Jong & Komen, 2016b) the authors reported that this dyadic approach is useful to analyze. The authors reported a high variability of TSE on the within-teacher level (= student-specific level) which was even larger than on the between-teacher-level. Further, Zee et al (2016b) showed that students’ behavior was associated with TSE. In a study of Schwab (submitted), the student-specific variance of TSE was higher compared to the variance between teachers. Schwab (submitted) explained this student-specific variance with students’ social behavior. However, more research in this area would be necessary to gain further insights into TSE and to better understand TSE and its influencing factors.
Thus, investigating student-specific variance of teachers’ self-efficacy is the focal point of this paper. In our study we will examine student-specific teacher’ self-efficacy of secondary grade teachers in inclusive settings. We look for differences in relation to teachers’ subjects (English, German, Maths) and students’ grade level as well as students’ special needs. Additionally, the inter-rater overlap between teachers of different subjects will be analyzed.
Data were collected as part of the German study Resources and Self-efficacy in inclusive education (RESE). Secondary grade students from inclusive classes (classes with at least one student with a SEN diagnosis) participated in the study. Data has been collected at the beginning of the school year (October – November 2017). Two main subject teachers of each class were asked to complete a questionnaire about every student participating in the study. In the total sample, 701 secondary grade students from 42 secondary school classes participated in this study. However, as not every teacher was willing to fill out a questionnaire about each student in his/her class, the number of classes that participated dropped from 42 to 22. Teachers rated a total number of 468 students (57.5% boys; 10-17 years old; 15.6% 5th graders, 17.1% 6th graders, 25.5% 7th graders, 25.7% 8th graders and 16.1% 9th graders). For 243 students ratings from two teachers were available. Measures Teachers' sense of self-efficacy towards individual students was assessed with a German 16-item short form of an adapted version of the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (Zee, Koomen, Jellesmaa, Geerlings, & de Jong, 2016). For each underlying subscale four items were used (instructional strategies: ‘I can provide appropriate challenges for this student’, behavior management: ‘I can control disruptive behavior in this student’, student engagement: ‘I can motivate this student for his/her schoolwork’, emotional support: ‘I can adjust learning tasks to this student's needs and interests’) and the item scores were used for an overall score. As Zee et al. (2016) already showed, one higher-order factor exists for the four underlying subscales. The answer format was a five point Likert-scale. The preliminary analyses show a high reliability for this German version in the present sample (Cronbach’s Alpha =.92). In Germany, students with SEN need an official label by the local educational authority. Thus, class teachers were asked to list all children in their class that were officially labeled as having SEN. Generally, the biggest group of SEN students have SEN regarding learning disabilities
Expected outcomes/results (up to 300 words) At this point, only preliminary analyses were undertaken. Descriptive analyses showed that teachers generally have a rather high student specific self-efficacy (M=3.97, SD=0.51) compared with the theoretical mean of the scale (M=3). No difference was found between female and male teachers and between teachers of different subjects (Maths, German and English). Further, students’ gender shows no influence on teacher’s student specific self-efficacy. The results of the three multilevel regression analyses showed that of the total variance, about 47% is situated at the class level. The correlation between the student specific self-efficacy of both teachers was r=.43 (p<.01). Further results (e.g. the influence of special needs) will be shown and discussed in this presentation.
Schwab, S. (submitted). Teachers’ student-specific self-efficacy. Zee, M. & Koomen, H. M. Y. (2016). Teacher self-efficacy and its effects on classroom processes, student academic adjustment, and teacher well-being: A synthesis of 40 years of research. Review of Educational Research, 86, 981-1015. Zee, M., Koomen, H. M. Y., Jellesma, F. C., Geerlings, J., & de Jong, P. F. (2016a). Inter- and intra-individual differences in teachers' self-efficacy: A multilevel factor exploration. Journal of School Psychology, 55, 39-56. Zee, M., de Jong, P. F., & Koomen, H. M. Y. (2016b). Teachers’ self-efficacy in relation to individual students with a variety of social-emotional behaviors: A multilevel investigation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(7), 1013-1027.
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