27 SES 12 A, Feadbacks and Perceptions in Teaching and Learning
Inquiry Learning is meanwhile a core instructional approach within science education. It differs from traditional methods, because students are required to learn and experience about the “Nature of Science” as they pass through all substantial phases of a research process: These include phases of developing a research question, formulating hypotheses, planning and performing an experiment, as well as documenting and sharing results (Hamman, 2004; Huber, 2009). There are many examples and ways how to implement Inquiry Learning in the science classroom. There is evidence that such approaches in biology (e.g., by using living animals for observational research) can enhance students’ interest, motivation and positive attitudes towards the topic (Randler, Hummel & Prokop, 2012; Tamir & Shcurr, 1997). Usually, students are guided during the most important steps of inquiry (Hamman, 2004).
Inquiry learning and, subsequently, conducting experiments are an important part of the science education. However, daily practice as well as research reveal that teachers do not include such practices on a regular base. Major reasons are here missing competences of teachers, lack of equipment and laboratories on an organizational level, and too high demands for students and missing self-regulated learning competences. Being able to self-regulate the learning process and have consciousness of one’s own learning process is crucial for inquiry learning (Eckhardt, Urhahne, Conrad, & Harms, 2013). Students are, however, often unable to regulate their learning activities (Azevedo, 2009; Bannert & Mengelkamp, 2013), thus requiring guidance or instruction. Even though students are aware of their own learning strategies, they are often not able to use appropriate learning strategies in the right moment or to use goal-oriented learning strategies (Artelt, 1999; Bannert et al., 2009; Jong & van Joolingen, 1998).
One possibility to support students’ metacognitive strategies is to foster their learning strategies during the learning phase. Here, this was done by the scaffolding-technique of prompting during biology lessons within a project with working with living bees. In this project students should acquire knowledge about life and development of honey bees and by doing so, learn the basics of scientific research.
Within this study inquiry learning was implemented to foster students understanding of scientific work during four biology lectures. The goal of our study was to investigate the impact of (meta-)cognitive prompts after each unit on learning outcomes and cognitive load. The overall aim of this study was to investigate how students benefit from specific instructional support when implementing inquiry learning in class and how the metacognitive scaffolding by prompts fosters students’ knowledge acquisition.
The research questions were how the scaffolding as applied here fosters knowledge acquisition and conceptual understanding. We assumed that prompting supports learners’ construction of basic knowledge and conceptual understanding of behavioral research methodology here. Furthermore we wanted to examine how students’ motivation and attitude towards living animals affects their knowledge acquisition.
Overall 64 students of the sixth grade (Austrian school system) participated in this experiment. General topics of this intervention included the importance of honeybees for ecological systems and the development and life of bees. The study was conducted using a single-factor experimental research design. A pre-test was used to assess students’ prior knowledge. A post-test was used to analyze the effectiveness of inquiry based learning scenarios combined with the prompting of metacognitive scaffolds. To foster learners’ understanding and to effectively use learning strategies, we designed specific scaffolds for each unit. After working and experimenting with the living bees (at the beehive), we interrupted the unit and had learners to provide answers to pre-given metacognitive prompts (e. g., “Think about the learned information again intensively: What do you remember of the taught lesson today?”). The prompting, which was focused on each unit’s content respectively was given after each session. We assessed students’ cognitive load after each unit with the intrinsic and extrinsic cognitive load scales developed by Leppinks and van den Heuvel (2015; ICL: Cronbach’s alpha from .53 to .89; ECL: Cronbach’s alpha from .76 to .83), students’ use of learning strategies with the LIST questionnaire (Wild & Schiefele, 1994; metacognitive strategies; Cronbachs’ Alpha from .84 to .91), students’ intrinsic as well as extrinsic motivation using the MSLQ (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia & McKeachie, 1991; Cronbach’s alpha from .70 to .83), and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, Egloff, Schmukle, Burns, Kohlmann & Hock, 2003; Cronbach’s alpha from .50 to .72). Learners’ knowledge acquisition and conceptual understanding has been assessed with a proprietary knowledge pre- and post-test.
A MANCOVA did not show a main effect for prompting (p = 0.237) but a significant main effect for metacognitive strategies (p = 0.000) as well as a significant main effect for students’ intrinsic motivation (p = 0.000) and students’ extrinsic motivation (p = 0.005). A closer look on single effects revealed that prior knowledge had a significant impact on knowledge acquisition (p = 0.029,
Artelt, C. (1999). Lernstrategien und Lernerfolg – Eine handlungsnahe Studie [Learning strategies and learning success – a study oriented towards action]. Zeitschrift für Entwicklungspsychologie und Pädagogische Psychologie [German Journal for Developmental and Educational Psychology], 31(2), 86-96. Azevedo, R. (2009). Theoretical, conceptual, methodological, and instructional issues in research on metacognition and self-regulated learning: A discussion. Metacognition and Learning, 4(1), 87–95. Bannert, M., Hildebrand, M., & Mengelkamp, C. (2009). Effects of a metacognitive support device in learning environments. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 829-835. Bannert, M., & Mengelkamp, C. (2013). Scaffolding hypermedia learning through metacognitive prompts. In R. Azevedo & V. Aleven (Eds.), International Handbook of Metacognition and Learning Technologies (pp.171-186). Springer Science. Eckhardt, M., Urhahne, D., Conrad, O., & Harms, U. (2013). How effective is instructional support for learning with computer simulations? Instructional Science, 41(1), 205-124. Egloff, B., Schmukle, S. C., Burns, L. R., Kohlmann, C.-W., & Hock, M. (2003). Facets of Dynamic Positive Affect: Differentiating Joy, Interest, and Activation in the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(3), 528-540. Hamman, M. (2004). Kompetenzentwicklungsmodelle. Merkmale und ihre Bedeutung - dargestellt anhand von Kompetenzen beim Experimentieren. Der mathematische und naturwissenschaftliche Unterricht, 57(4), 196 - 203. Huber, L. (2009).Warum Forschendes Lernen nötig und möglich ist. In: L. Huber, J. Hellmer, F. Schneider (Hrsg.), Forschendes Lernen im Studium (pp. 9-35). Universitätsverlag Webler. de Jong, T. & van Joolingen, W. R. (1998). Scientific discovery learning with computer simulations of conceptual domains. Review of Educational Research, 68(2), 179-201 Leppinks, J. & van den Heuvel, A. (2015). The evolution of cognitive load theory and its application to medical education. Perspect Med Educ, 4, 119-127. Pintrich, P.R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W.J. (1991). A Manual for the Use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan. Randler, C., Hummel, E., & Prokop, P. (2012). Practical Work at School Reduces Disgust and Fear of Unpopular Animals. Society & Animals, 20, 61-74. Tamir, P. & Shcurr, Y. (1997). Back to living animals: on extracurricular course for fifth-grade pupils. Journal of Biological Education, 31(4), 300-304. Wild, K.-P., & Schiefele, U. (1994). Lernstrategien im Studium: Ergebnisse zur Faktorenstruktur und Reliabilität eines neuen Fragebogens [Learning strategies for studying: results of factor structure and reliability of a new questionnaire]. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie [Journal for Differential and Diagnostics in Psychology], 15, 185–200.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
The programme is updated regularly (each day in the morning)
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.