01 SES 02 C, Voices, Dialogue and Dialogical Approaches to Professional Learning
The core aim of the paper is to discuss our research on teachers professional development considered as a dialogical process of creating patterns of orientation on both individual and collective levels (Bohnsack, 2017; Krzychała, Zamorska, 2014). An opportunity for our research was an experimental project of the individualised tutoring/mentoring in over 20 Wroclaw middle schools in the years 2008-2016. The teachers-tutors were expected to extend the classroom teaching system into individual cooperation with particular students (Drozd, Zembrzuska, 2013). We examined the changes that took place in each school due to the introduction of regular individualised tutorials focused on supporting the students' potential and talents. After three years, almost all teachers acting as tutors reported an apparent qualitative change in individual practice and teamwork at schools. Thus we were able to reconstruct the process of professional development for both novice and practised teachers who experienced changes in their careers and worked out new models of pedagogical orientation. In our research we refer to two theoretical perspectives: (1) the polyphonic structure of the discourse by M. Bachtin (1981, 1987); (2) the socio-genealogical reconstruction of the praxeological knowledge by K. Mannheim (1952, 1997; also Bohnsack, 2014, 2017). The inquiry address the primary research question: How was tutoring incorporated in the school activity system? It will be presented, how the pragmatic professional knowledge emerges by dialogical alternation between individual and collective activities. This perspective allows us to exceed the analysis of the learning community as homogeneous teamwork, revealing the structure of the knotwork (Engeström, 2005; 2007; Engeström, Kajamaa, Lahtinen, Sannino, 2015). Our study can contribute to the discussion on the prospective dynamic of learning communities (MacPhail, Patton, Parker, Tannehill, 2014; McDonald, Cater-Steel, 2017) and the variability of individual patterns of participation in collaborative practice research/lesson study (Shuilleabhain, 2015, 2016; Skott, Møller, 2017).
We conducted qualitative studies in 12 middle schools in 2015-2016, recording 12 group discussions and 52 interviews with teachers-tutors (4-6 IDIs with group discussion participants in each school). The sampling includes schools differentiating according to the size (from 100 to 900 students), students' achievement, grade of implementation of the tutoring project. The procedure of data analysis draws on the documentary method (Bohnsack, 2014). We use triangulation of individual and group interviews, so an analytic case is not limited to a single person or a team. We are interested in the process of constructing of the pattern of orientation, combined with individual and collective components.
We reconstructed four typical pathways of organisational changes in schools. Each of the paths was analysed from the perspective of team activity and from a few individual perspectives of teachers (e. g. informal leader, beginner or more experienced teacher). They consisted of 5-6 years of changes, from initial engagement of a few teachers to the consolidation of the new organisational model for the whole school, when at least half of all teachers were already involved in the new style of work. They also include critical points and discrepancies in the search for new solutions. I will present the socio-genealogical development of the pattern of professional orientation in one of the schools, which are intertwined with parallel lines of activities of the team and three teachers (2 women and 1 man, all with about twenty years of experience). They perform in different ways, but the meaning of the change is to reveal only in connection with the activities of other participants in the learning community. Professional development is not a completed process so that we can identify the germ forms of future challenges for the professional learning in this school.
Bachtin, M. M. (1981). The dialogic imagination: Four essays. University of Texas Press Slavic series: no. 1. Austin: University of Texas Press. Bachtin, M. M. (1987). Speech genres and other late essays (2., paperback print). University of Texas Press Slavic series: nr. 8. Austin, Tex.: Univ. of Texas Press. Bohnsack, R. (2014). Documentary Method. W: U. Flick (red.), The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Analysis (s. 217–233). London: SAGE Publications Ltd. Bohnsack, R. (2017). Praxeologische Wissenssoziologie (1. Auflage). UTB: nr. 8708. Leverkusen: UTB; Budrich, Barbara. Drozd, E., Zembrzuska, A. (2013). School Tutoring as a Concept and a Support Method in Student’s Development. Forum Oświatowe. (2(49)), 167–175. Engeström, R. (2005). Polyphony of Activity. W: Y. Engeström, J. Lompscher, G. Rückriem (red.), International cultural-historical human sciences: Bd. 13. Putting activity theory to work. Contributions from developmental work research (s. 45–69). Berlin: Lehmanns Media, LOB.de. Engeström, Y. (2007). From teams to knots. Learning in doing : social, cognitive and computational perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Engeström, Y., Kajamaa, A., Lahtinen, P., Sannino, A. (2015). Toward a Grammar of Collaboration. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 22(2), 92–111. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10749039.2015.1024326. Krzychała, S., Zamorska, B. (2014). Collective Patterns of Teachers’ Action: A Documentary Interpretation of the Construction of Habitual Knowledge. Qualitative Sociology Review. (10(4)), 68–86. Pobrane z: www.qualitativesociologyreview.org. MacPhail, A., Patton, K., Parker, M., Tannehill, D. (2014). Leading by Example: Teacher Educators' Professional Learning Through Communities of Practice. Quest, 66(1), 39–56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2013.826139. Mannheim, K. (1952). Essays on the Sociology of Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mannheim, K. (1997). Structures of thinking. Collected works of Karl Mannheim: v. 10. London, New York: Routledge. McDonald, J., Cater-Steel, A. (2017). Communities of Practice. Singapore: Springer Singapore. Shuilleabhain, A. N. (2015). Lesson Study as a form of in-School Professional Development: Case studies in two post-primary schools. Dublin: University College Dublin. Shuilleabhain, A. N. (2016). Developing mathematics teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge in lesson study. International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 5(3), 212–226. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJLLS-11-2015-0036. Skott, C. K., Møller, H. (2017). The individual teacher in lesson study collaboration. International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 6(3), 216–232. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJLLS-10-2016-0041.
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