01 SES 06 C, Professional Learning in Early Childhood Contexts
China has put great eﬀorts recently into boosting kindergarten participation nationwide. However, the shortage of teacher is huge and the quality of teacher is insufficient. ECE teachers were under-compensated, and public institutions had high pupil-to-staff ratios (Zhou, Li, et al, 2017). As the development of market economy, teachers have more flexibility of choosing job between different areas, different sectors, and different kindergartens. ECE Institutions want to obtain effectiveness and sustaining, teacher will be the key point for them. Teachers, especially who work in early childhood educational setting, have a lot of role expectations. They have to be functional in many fields and meet many responsibilities in their daily work life, such as instruction to children, corporation with workmates, communication with parents, and responsible toward leader and organization. What’s more, when they face the balance conflicts between individual and organization, between rights and responsibilities, how to act will be the unavoidable problem. Which one would be the priority one, individual rights or collective responsibilities? Should teachers sacrifice their own benefits for organizational goal or might they focus on individual advantages instead of collective ones? How can they find the point of balance? And how can they act based on the balance point? Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is the concept and its theory can help me to understand more about those questions mentioned above through combining micro-individual level, organizational level, and even social level.
(1) What are the components of teachers’ OCB in ECE setting? What is the status quo of teachers’ OCB?
(2) How individual, leadership, organization affect teachers’ OCB? That is, what the relationship among individual value types, individualism- collectivism, ethical leadership, organizational ethical climate and OCB is?
6 kindergartens in Beijing and Hubei provinces will be our objectives and all of their teachers will participate in all surveys.
Main Quantitative Hypotheses
Hypothes1 Value types can direct predict OCB.
Hypothes2 Individualism-collectivism can direct predict OCB.
Hypothes3 Ethical Leadership can direct predict OCB.
Hypothes4 Organizational Ethical Climate can direct predict OCB.
Hypothes5 Ethical Leadership will correlate with Organizational Ethical Climate.
Hypothes6 Value types will predict OCB through Individualism-collectivism.
Hypothes7 Value types will predict OCB through Ethical Leadership.
Hypothes8 Value types will predict OCB through Organizational Ethical Climate.
Hypothes9 Individualism-collectivism will predict OCB through Ethical Leadership.
Hypothes10 Individualism-collectivism will predict OCB through Organizational Ethical Climate.
We will use the quantitative methods to find the answers for research questions. Critical Incident Technique (CIT) will be used to develop measures of OCB. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that OCB has an institutional and a collegial component. There will be five measures used to evaluate and collect data from teacher. Individual Values Types Allport–Vernon–Lindzey Study of Values (SOV), is a scale including six values types, such as theoretical, Economic, Social, Political, Aesthetic, And Religious. We’ve get the written permission to use it. Individualism-Collectivism IC was measured with Wagner and Moch's (1986) 11-item scale. Wagner and Moch identified three structural dimensions of IC, beliefs, values, norms. We’ve get the written permission to use it. Ethical Leadership This research will assess ethical leadership using Brown et al. (2005) one-dimensional 10-item ethical leadership scale (ELS). Organizational Ethical Climate In our study the teachers will be asked to rate the three dimensions of OEC (namely benevolent OEC, principled OEC, and egoistic OEC) on a 9-item index where the responses were rated on a six point-Likert-type scale ranging from 1 = “strongly disagree” to 6 =“strongly agree” (Parboteeah & Kapp, 2008). We’ve get the written permission of the Chinese version. OCB By using CIT, a normal OCB measure and a short one will be developed. At least 800 teachers will take the normal version and those data will be calculated and analyses the relationship with other variables. Experience-Sampling-Method (ESM) is required as the variables and processes of interest are not enduring and stable, but instead are episodic and dynamic in nature. Therefore, the short version (might be five to ten items) will be used to collect teachers’ OCB daily data through ESM, which will help to examine teachers over the course of 14 consecutive workdays. 40-50 teachers will be involved. This part will provide the information about the status quo of teachers’ OCB and within-person what the difference is.
We would be obtain the OCB measure for early childhood education teachers; 10 hypothesis would be checked; There would be some special characters in Chinese cultural context.
Brown, M. E., Trevin ˜o, L. K., & Harrison, D. A. (2005). Ethical Leadership: A Social Learning Perspective for Construct Development and Testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97, 117–134. Cullen, J. B., Victor, B., Stephens, C. (1989). An Ethical Weather Report: Assessing the Organization's Ethical Climate. Organizational Dynamics, 18(2), 50-63. Elci, M., & Alpkan, L. (2009). The Impact of Perceived Organizational Ethical Climate on Work Satisfaction. Journal of Business Ethics, 84(3), 297–311. Farh, J., Chen-Bo, Z., & Organ, D. W. (2004). Organizational Citizenship Behavior in the People's Republic of China. Organization Science, 15(2), 241-253. Flanagzn, J.C. (1954). The Critical Incident Technique. Psychological Bulletin, 51, 327-358. Mo, S., & Shi, J. (2017). Linking Ethical Leadership to Employees' Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Testing the Multilevel Mediation Role of Organizational Concern. Journal Of Business Ethics, 141(1), 151-162. Moorman, R. H., & Blakely, G. L. (1995). Individualism-collectivism as an Individual Difference Predictor of Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16(2), 127-142. Kacmar, K. M., Bachrach, D. G., Harris, K. J., & Zivnuska, S. (2011). Fostering Good Citizenship through Ethical Leadership: Exploring the Moderating Role of Gender and Organizational Politics. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(3), 633-642. Katz D. (1964). Motivational Basis of Organizational Behavior. Behavior Science, (9), 131-146. Organ, D. W. (1977). A Reappraisal and Reinterpretation of the Satisfaction-Causes-Performance Hypothesis. Academy of Management Review, 2(1), 46-53. Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: the Good Soldier Syndrome. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, c1988. Organ, D. W. (1997). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: It's Construct Clean-Up Time. Human Performance, 10(2), 85-97. Smith, C. A., Organ, D. W., & Near, J. P. (1983). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature and Antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(4), 653-663. Spence, J. R., Ferris, D. L., Brown, D. J., Heller, D. (2011).Understanding Daily Citizenship Behaviors: A Social Comparison Perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 547–571. Spranger, E., & Pigors, P. W. (1928). Types of Men: The Psychology and Ethics of Personality. Halle (Saale) M. Niemeyer. Wagner, J. A., Ill, Moch, M. K. (1986). Individualism-Collectivism: Concept and measure. Group and Organization Studies, 11, 3, 280-304. Yogamalar, I., & Samuel, A. A. (2016). Shared Values and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Generational Cohorts: A Review and Future Directions. Management: Journal of Contemporary Management Issues, 21(2), 249-271.
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