04 SES 02 B, Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Higher Education
A modern approach to inclusive education is understood by the inclusion of a complex measures to include people with disabilities in the educational process with the subsequent promotion of their employment in conditions of effective interaction between educational institutions, organizations that provide rehabilitation services, and the labor market. However, quite often inclusive education as a mechanism of integration is understood too narrowly exclusively as a joint learning and not as a complex of various measures. Development of inclusive education requires a systemic solution of a number of problems. One of the main obstacles is still insufficient development of social infrastructure. According to the study conducted among residents of Respublic of Tatarstan , Russia , the majority of respondents with disabilities, consider that there is no an accessible environment for people with limited opportunities in our region. Only less than a third (28.8) believe that such conditions have been created, and -20.5% found it difficult to answer. In small towns, the data is even more deplorable: 67.4% argue that in their area an accessible environment for the disabled (ramps, vehicles, elevators in public institutions, etc.) is absent and for the availability of accessible for the disabled expressed their opinion on the infrastructure 19,7%. Thus, physical access to educational institutions (as well as other social and cultural sites of the city) for people with disability, in their own estimation, is significantly hampered. So, many istitutions of higher education are not ready to accept people with disabilities. In the process of study the most popular higher educational establishments of Republic of Tatarstan received the following data: most of the educational institutions accepts persons with disabilities for training if they have a certificate that teaching them is not contraindicated. In general, universities offer full-time education in general flow with all students, some universities also have the opportunity to study by correspondence. However, the infrastructure of most universities does not meet the needs of people with disabilities. for example, elevators are present only in 4 state universities of 16. And in all cases it is only a matter of having separate elements of accessibility, rather than full compliance with the necessary requirements. In addition to infrastructure, there are social barriers, in the form of public opinions and readiness of citizens to joint learning. In this regard, it should be noted that for a few recent years, there have been obvious positive results in the public consciousness. By according to study of this problem, 57.9% of respondents believe that joint training of students in colleges, lyceums, technical schools and universities can affect positively both on the disabled and on ordinary students, who will become interaction more humane, learn mutual assistance and care. And only 3.8% think that this will affect negatively on the learning process. From the statement that at the present time, people with disabilities generally have all the opportunities to get a professional education, including higher education, on an equal basis with other citizens, agree 24.7% ("yes") and 17.4% ("most likely yes") of all respondents. 19.2% rather disagree, 23.7% do not agree, 14.5% found it difficult to answer. It should also be noted that the problem of the existing in the universities deficit of innovative educational programs and forms of education oriented towards inclusive education.. Summarizing the opinion of experts, the following obstacles to the development of a system of inclusive education can be identified: lack of the necessary regulatory framework, inadequate funding, lack of effective system of interdepartmental interaction, inadequacy of social infrastructure needs of people with disabilities, inadequate activity of civil society, lack of interaction between subjects of rehabilitation,bureaucracy.
The realization of the rights of persons with disabilities to education is associated with a number of problems related to with the reform of the education system and social policy in relation to the disabled. The most effective measures aimed at the development of education for people with disabilities, according study, respondents believe: 1) creation of special resource information centers for the disabled; creation of special state programs for training and employment of people with limited opportunities; 2) allocation of special subsidies for training for the disabled; 3) creation and expansion of specialized vocational rehabilitation in educational institutions; 4) distance learning; 5) more accessible training of persons with disabilities in educational establishments of cities and towns. Thus, distance learning is still the most appropriate form for the disabled, in contrast from the inclusive education. In general, the overwhelming majority of citizens refer to the problems of disabled people with participation. To joint learning , respondents are generally positive, although, they do not particularly believe in its effectiveness, and believe in that it is better for disabled people to study separately. One of the main principles of inclusive education is continuous and multilevel vocational education and integrated rehabilitation support of the educational process. The organizational form of the system -complex, consisting of an educational institution or training center, medical rehabilitation branch and center of professional adaptation. Only this structure effectively coordinates efforts of federal, regional and city organizations and departments that solve tasks education of disabled people.The following areas of development of inclusive education are recommended: - development of a monitoring system in which all persons with disabilities from school institutions form the base of entrants; - preparation of international experts in the field of educational programs on inclusive education and the establishment of an institution of professional and public expertise on inclusive education in a broad social sense; - allocation of targeted grants for higher education, advanced training teachers for inclusive education, as well as introducing them into educational programs of pedagogical universities of educational modules, elective courses or electives on issues of inclusive education; - Increase in computer literacy, introduction and training by means of such information technologies, such as video text (text and graphic data), multimedia (simultaneous presentation of information - a sound series, video sequences, three-dimensional graphics, etc.); - Increasing the financing of the inclusive system of education in order to prepare the educational institutions and their infrastructure for admission disabled persons;
Experts identify three main areas of employment for disabled people. 1. training on new state standards of education (attraction students to design, research activities); 2. psychological and pedagogical support (health-saving technologies for attitude towards students); 3.interaction of educational institutions with employment centers and employers. Currently, the social integration of people with disabilities health is one of the priorities of social policy, but a significant part of the population estimates the activity of the state in the sphere of assistance to the disabled quite low. However, there is a tendency to increase social activity of public associations of people with special needs, including in upholding their rights to education. It should also be recognized that in the direction of development of inclusive forms of education, of course, there are positive changes, and in the sphere of vocational education, higher education institutions should actively implement educational programs, meeting modern standards of inclusive education.
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