04 SES 05.5 PS, General Poster Session - NW 04
General Poster Session
Acording to Santos (2010: 34), intercultural education "has an essentially dynamic vision. It raises educational opportunities when there are not students from different ethnic groups in the school. It makes a globalizing approach. It focuses preferentially on the egalitarian relations between cultures. It facilitates and promotes processes of exchange, interaction and cooperation between cultures. It puts the accent not so much on the differences as on the similarities. Make a critical approach, assessing and analyzing cultures. It contemplates the educational process not as a separating element but as a unifying one. It makes an interactive, interrelated, "tapestry" approach. Each individual is different, yes. But also every culture. And there is no single culture in society, although there is usually a hegemonic culture. This fact gives rise to the existence of ethnic minorities. "
The Spanish Confederation of Organizations for Persons with Disabilities (FEAPS) provides quality indicators for educational practice (Campos et al, 2002), and provides specific guidance on how to address diversity in schools.
These guidelines are presented grouped into seven dimensions as the professional school environment, governing bodies, equipment support and guidance, students, administration and associations.
Activities arising from them lead to social welfare, educational quality and academic success of all students from the special importance that inclusion takes.
Since the enactment of the Organic Law of Education (2006) and the prioritization of the principle of educational inclusion, diversity in classrooms of public schools is increasing.
Effective work with diversity has to estimate the curriculum and learning content, but also the school organization and resources that are needed for it. Because the chances of intervention are different and have to be set according to the degree of diversity in classrooms of schools.
It is no longer enough to accept difference, but rather to learn from it (Ainscow, Booth and Dyson, 2006) and, in this sense, the invitation is to institute schools as meeting places, reflection, criticism and self-criticism and empowerment
It is in this scenario where educational inclusion has to be understood as the process by which schools respond to all as students and reconstruct the curriculum to reach all students individually (Sebba and Ainscow, 1996).
According to Arnáiz, educational inclusion should contribute to "develop the desired social cohesion, becoming an indispensable element for society to attain the ideals of peace, freedom and social justice" (2012: 41). Ultimately, there are remediable injustices around us and should be deleted (Sen, 2011).
The involvement of everyone in the educational inclusion must be provided (Antúnez and Gairín, 2003), introducing classroom strategies and different from those traditionally used (Sancho, 2005) practices. Because a pedagogy that treats equal to those that are unequal is unequal and, in addition, generates school failure (Perrenoud, 1990).
The theater as a tool for learning is at this point a different alternative for inclusive education in schools. With the theater, and from it, you can educate and drive groups of vulnerable, marginalized and excluded students (Pfeilstetter, 2010). Its effectiveness is verified when it offers quality educational interventions for students (Calafat-Selma, Sanz-Cervera and Tárraga-Mínguez, 2016), in addition to many other benefits it brings (Pérez, 2009). Evidence of this are the contributions of Tejerina (2007) or Cerrillo and Garcia (1997) that distinguish its holistic and interdisciplinary character and its positive influence on cognitive, emotional and social processes of students.
The descriptive work presented here is qualitative in nature and is based on the experiences of a group of students with their teacher, the emerging dialogue, analysis and reflection on the experience carried out and the interpretation of it, that is, it is based on the evaluation of experience in school context from the everyday (Anguera, 1999). The sample selection was on purpose (Patton, 2002) Participants Participants were 12 students in third grade, 7 boys and 5 girls, receiving support in Therapeutic Pedagogy and Compensatory Education. Of the total 7 have Individual Curricular Adaptations (ACI) in Language and Mathematics and one has Significant Individual Curricular Adaptations (ACIS) in all curriculum areas. Regarding the diagnoses, six present Learning Disorder not specified, two Intellectual Disabilities, one Mixed Disorder of receptive-expressive language, another with simple delay of language and two are students of compensatory. Instruments They have been used as instruments of information collection a semi-structured interview "Standardized Open-Ended" (Patton, 1990) to the responsible teacher of the project, analysis of classroom situations and dialogue emerged throughout the process and the artistic representation of the experience carried out by the participating students at the end of the performance. Process Phase 1. Analysis of reality. The data of absenteeism, school failure and lack of motivation before school tasks were worrisome. Phase 2. Establishment of objectives. The teacher of Therapeutic Pedagogy together with the compensatory education professional wrote a series of general objectives such as: improving academic performance, reducing school absenteeism and social exclusion, developing work habits and positive attitudes towards cultural manifestations and the figure of the woman. The specific objectives corresponded to what was established in the curricular adaptations of the Castilian language area. Phase 3. Theater workshop. Through the work of Gloria Fuertes, with readings, adaptations of texts, preparation of exhibitions in public and representation, the workshop is held throughout a school year. Phase 4. We represent a work. This workshop ends with the representation of the work of Gloria Fuertes for classmates, school teachers and families. In addition, the students involved in the process made an artistic representation of the experience.
The results obtained try to answer the following questions: how can schools promote educational inclusion ?, What to do in schools to meet the diversity of students? or what are the changes that must be introduced in the teaching and learning processes? The answer to these questions seems simple from the constructivist perspective from which the teacher in charge of this group lives teaching. The student is the real protagonist of his learning, which builds on the experience that aims to go beyond the classroom and learning is life. Satisfaction with the experience expressed by all the agents involved gives this workshop its own value, because the main objective of the teacher must be to infect his students with the desire to learn autonomously. The academic results of the students adjusted to what was expected with their adaptations, because in addition this teacher has positive expectations of her students. Analysis of artistic representations of students is clear how this experience as part of their identities and dialogues and verbal explanations about the experience highlights the awareness of each student about himself with opportunities to experience success and mastery of different means of expression such as the word and drawing, through which you can express your emotions and project the image of yourself. By analyzing each picture stands in all of them represent their characters in large size at the center of the leaves and bright colors, which makes us share with Antezana (2003) that these drawings are open daily who can read it.
Ainscow, M.; Booth, T.; Dyson, A. (2006). Improving schools, developing inclusion. London: Routledge. Anguera, M.T. (1999). Hacia una evaluación de la actividad cotidiana y su contexto: ¿presente o futuro para la metodología? Discurso de ingreso como académica numeraria electa. En A. Bazán y A. Arce (Eds.), Estrategias de Evaluación y Medición del Comportamiento en Psicología (pp. 11-86). México: Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora y Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Antúnez, S. y Gairín, J. (2003). La organización escolar. Práctica y fundamentos. Barcelona: Graó. Antezana, L. (2001). Dibujo Infantil: Una Escritura del Cuerpo. Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales. Santiago, Chile: Tesis de Magíster dirigida por el Dr. Rafael del Villar en el año 2001. Inédita. Arnáiz, P. (2012). Escuelas eficaces e inclusivas: cómo favorecer su desarrollo. Educatio Siglo XXI, vol. 30, nº 1, 25-44. Calafat-Selma, M.; Sanz-Cervera, P. y Tárraga-Mínguez, R. (2016). El teatro como herramienta de intervención en alumnus con trastorno del espectro autista y discapacidad intellectual. Revista Nacional e Internaticonal de Educación Inclusiva, vol. 9, nº 3, 95-108. Campos, Mª. J. y otros. (2002). Indicadores de calidad para la integración escolar. Madrid: FEAPS. Cerrillo, P. y García, J. (Coords.). (1997). Teatro infantil y dramatización escolar. Cuenca: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Castilla – La Mancha. Patton. M.Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2ª edición). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Patton, Q. M. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Pérez, I. (2009). Fomento de las habilidades sociales a través del teatro. Recursos Didácticos en la Práctica Educativa, 1-9. Perrenoud, P. (1990). La construcción del éxito y del fracaso escolar. Madrid: Ediciones Morata S. L. Pfeilstetter, R. (2010). Lo normal puesto en escena. Apuntes antropológicos sobre el teatro y la discapacidad inetelectual. Gazeta de Antropología, vol. 1, nº 26. Disponible en: http://www.ugr.es/~pwlac/G26_06Richard_Pfeilstetter.html Sancho, J. M. (2005). Investigación en la escuela inclusiva. Revista Electrónica Iberoamericana sobre Calidad, Eficacia y Cambio en Educación, 64, 19-30. Santos, M. A. (2010). Construir la interculturalidad. Revista Interdisciplinar sobre o Desenvolvimento Humano, nº 1, 31-38. Sebba, J. y Ainscow, M. (1996). International developments in inclusive schooling: mapping the issues. Cambridge Journal of Education, 26(1), 5-18. Sen, A. (2011). La idea de la justicia. Buenos Aires: Taures. Tejerina, I. (2007). Panorama histórico del teatro infantil en castellano. En Roig, B.; Lucas, P. y Soto, I. (Coords.). Teatro infantil. Do texto á representación (57-84). Vigo: Xerais.
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