04 SES 05.5 PS, General Poster Session - NW 04
General Poster Session
In Portugal the field of specific learning disabilities is characterized by a lack of a technically adequate system of school-wide screening and progress monitoring in reading that can promote an early identification of students at risk academically for developing reading disabilities. Emphasis on the need of this system has increased as a result of national research developed by Mourão (2011) and by Patrão (2010) at the University of Minho. Additionally, Portuguese educational theorists who teach, research, conduct clinics, and write about specific learning disabilities, also documented this need (Martins, 2006).
The Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) is a simple standard procedure that can produce the level and growth information, and that is widely used for screening and progress monitoring purposes across general and special education (Deno, Fuchs, Marston, & Shin, 2001; Deno, Reschly, Lembke, Magnusson, Callender, et al., 2009; Fuchs, 2004; Fuchs & Fuchs, 1997; Fuchs, Fuchs, & Hollenbeck, 2007). Developed and researched at the University of Minnesota since the early 1970’s by Stanley L. Deno, CBM provides reliable, valid, time and cost efficient, and practical measures in academic areas such as reading, mathematics, written expression, and spelling, that can inform teachers about students rates of improvement, who are the students demonstrating inadequate progress, when to make instructional modifications; thereby design more effective, individualized instructional programs for struggling learners (Deno et al., 2001; Deno et al., 2009; Fuchs, 2004; Fuchs & Fuchs, 1997). Although, CBM scores are primarily collected by teachers in their classrooms for making instructional decisions (Deno, 1985), it is also possible to aggregate CBM data at both classroom and school level for accountability purposes (Deno et al., 2009).
Therefore, we conducted a quantitative research project, in which we developed and tested a school-wide CBM universal screening and progress monitoring system that was used twice a year to second, third and fourth grade students in the north of Portugal. The project goals were: a) To develop a school-wide student CBM screening and progress monitoring system to 2sd, 3rd and 4th grade within tier 1 Multi-level Prevention System on reading; b) To know what are the mean scores (level) and the rate of growth on reading comprehension for second, 2sd, 3rd and 4th grade; c) To know the impact of gender and at risk variables.
In this poster we plan to present and discuss the particularities of this research as well as the longitudinal analysis of the results. On one hand, results from three academic years in CBM maze probes of the same students are giving us a thoughtfully conceived and implemented longitudinal prospective about the differences in the reading comprehension development of students at risk and students who are not at risk. On the other hand, in conducting this study, we created foundations for a school district, or a state to use curriculum-based measurements for setting year-end goals, monitoring student progress, and evaluating the effectiveness of instructional programs, and therefore to promote an early identification of students at risk academically for reading disabilities.
A quantitative research was carried out within a population of students from 86 classes from 56 public schools, which are organized in 12 school clusters, in the district of Braga, Portugal. Therefore, in this research we collect data from the same students when they were enrolled in second (n= 1394), third (n=1342), and fourth (n=1375) grades. For each academic year we developed a Curriculum-Based Measurement Maze probe that was used twice a year. Each probe required students to silently read three text passages. In each text every 7th word was deleted and replaced with three word choices. Students had two minutes to select the correct word for each set of word choices (Deno et al., 2009). Data was analyzed by descriptive, inferential and correlational statistics.
1) CBM Maze probe is economic, quick and easy to implement, with good acceptance and high levels of acceptance among teachers, students and parents. 2) The levels of the reading comprehension over the three school years reflects learning in the population. 3) Reading comprehension level gap between students who are not at risk and those who are at risk grows larger over time. 4) Students at risk had a decreasing growth rate over time. 5) Gender has impact on grade 4, with girls presenting better results. 6) At risk variable had impact on grade 1, 2 and 3. 7) Results of the probes had a high internal consistency.
Deno, S. L. (1985). Curriculum-based measurement: The emerging alternative. Exceptional Children, 52(3), 219 – 232. Deno, S. L., Reschly, A. L., Lembke, E. S., Magnusson, D., Callender, S. A., Windram, H., et al. (2009). Developing a School-wide Progress Monitoring System. Psychology in the Schools, 46 (1), 44-55. Deno, S., Fuchs, L. S., Marston, D., & Shin, J. (2001). Using curriculum-based measurement to establish growth standards for students with learning disabilities. School Psychology Review, 30(4), 507-524. Fuchs, L. S. (2004). The past, present, and future of curriculum-based mesurement research. School Psychology Review, 33(2), 188-192. Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D. & Hollenbeck, K.N. (2007). Extending responsiveness to intervention to mathematics at first and third grades. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 22(1), 13-24. Fuchs, L.S., & Fuchs, D. (1997). Use of curriculum-based measurement in identifying students with disabilities. Focus on Exceptional Children, 30(3), 1-14. Martins, A.P.L. (2006). Dificuldades de aprendizagem: Compreender o fenómeno a partir de sete estudos de caso. Instituto de Estudos da Criança, Universidade do Minho, Braga. Mourão, D. (2011). Dificuldades de Aprendizagem Específicas na Leitura: Um Estudo Quantitativo sobre a Monitorização com Base no Currículo. Tese de Mestrado não publicada em Educação Especial, Especialização em Dificuldades de Aprendizagem Específicas Instituto de Educação, Universidade do Minho, Braga. Patrão, M. (2010). Monitorização com Base no Currículo: Um Estudo Quantitativo sobre a Utilização de Provas MAZE no Contexto do Nível I do Modelo de Atendimento à Diversidade. Tese de Mestrado não publicada em Educação Especial, Especialização em Dificuldades de Aprendizagem Específicas Instituto de Educação, Universidade do Minho, Braga. This work is based on results from two research projects Funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (EXPL/MHC-CED/2449/2013: Curriculum-based measurements to establish risk for specific reading disabilities for 4th grade: To a longitudinal comparison of results from 2sd to 4th grade of Basic Education & PTDC/CPE-CED/111430/2009: Using the curriculum-based measurements to establish risk for specific reading).
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