27 SES 12 A, Feadbacks and Perceptions in Teaching and Learning
Research on goal theory distinguish between two main subtypes of goal orientation: learning goals and performance approach goals. Learning goals are associated with adaptive outcomes like persistence, self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation, while performance goals are associated with social comparison and competition (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2013). Goal theory focus the individual perspective, but lately the conceptual framework of the theory has been used to explain how teachers’ personal goals transforms into a motivational discourse pattern of the classroom (Polychroni et al., 2012). Research suggest that classroom goal structure affect students’ goal orientation as well as their educational outcomes (Murayama & Elliot, 2009). Learning goal structure is associated with adaptive beliefs and responses like the feeling of belonging (Walker, 2012), positive relationships with teachers and peers (Polychroni et al., 2012), and acceptance of challenging tasks (Ames & Archer, 1988). On the other hand, a performance goal structure is associated with less adaptive outcomes, like less positive relationships with teachers and peers (Polychroni et al., 2012), and lower levels of persistence (Wolters, 2004). Further, socially supportive relationships in the classroom have been found to promote engagement and persistence (Wentzel, 1988).
The present study focus the relationship between classroom goal structure, social relations in the classroom, and students’ beliefs about themselves. We expect that learning goal structure is associated with positive relations to teachers and peers, and that performance goal structure is associated with less positive relations. We further expect that learning goal structure is positively associated with students´ beliefs in their own competence both directly and mediated through social relations, and that performance goal structure affect the same outcomes less positively. We expect that students´ self-esteem is positively affected by learning goal structure, social relations and competence beliefs (Niiya & Crocker, 2008). Finally we expected that self-esteem is positively influenced by beliefs about competence.
Research question: Are students´ competence beliefs and self-esteem related to goal structure in the classroom, and are these relations mediated through students´ perceptions of social support from teachers and peers in the classroom?
The sample consisted of students from 13 different upper secondary schools in Norway (n= 2120, 1059 boys and 1061 girls). The students answered a questionnaire with the researchers present. Students' perception of the goal structure in the classroom was measured as a two dimensional concept; Classroom Mastery Goal Structure and Classroom Performance Approach Goal Structure (Migdley et al., 2000), each with four items. Example of item from the first scale: "In our class, it's OK to make mistakes as long as you are learning", and from the second: "In our class, getting good grades is the main goal". Reliability in the present study: .70 and .86. Social support from teachers was measured with four items, two from Malecki and Demary (2002), and two from the PISA "Supportive Teacher" questionnaire (OECD, 2009). Example: "My teachers care about me". Reliability: .88. Social support from peers was measured with four items from Malecki and Demary (2002), example: "Other students in my class are nice to me". Reliability: .84. Competence beliefs (resilience) was measured with four items from DiMaggio et al. (2016). Example item: "I consider myself able to tackle everything that may happen". Reliability: .78. Self-esteem was measured with four items based on SDQ III (Marsh, 1989). Example item: "Overall, I am pretty accepting of myself". Reliability: .89. Based on the literature review we specified a theoretical model in which classroom goal structure was related to social support in the classroom, resilience and self esteem. This model was tested by means of SEM analyses with latent variables. We tested the model for the total sample, and later made separate analyses for boys and girls.
Positive relations was found between learning goal structure and perception of support from teachers and peers. Performance goal structure was negatively associated with social support. Support from teachers predicted positively support from peers. Support from both teachers and peers was positively related to resilience and self-esteem. Finally resilience predicted self-esteem positively. Some differences was found between boys and girls. Educational implications will be discussed.
Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Students' learning strategies and motivation process. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 260-270. DiMaggio, I., Ginerva, M. C., Nota, L., & Soresi, S. (2016). Development and validation of an instrument to assess future orientation and resilience in adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 51, 114-122. Malecki, C. K., & Demary, M. C. (2002). Measuring perceived social support: Development of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASS). Psychology in the Schools, 39(1) 1-18. Marsh, H. (1989). Self description questionnaire - III. University of Western Sydney. Migdley, C., Maehr, M. L., Hruda, L. Z., Anderman, E., Anderman, L., Freeman, K. E., Gheen, M., Kaplan, A., Kumar, R., Middleton, J. N., Roeser, R., and Urdan, T. (2000). Manual for the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales. University of Michigan. Murayama, K., & Elliot, A. J. (2009). The joint influence of personal achievement goals and classroom goal structures on achievement-related outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 432-447. Niiya, Y. & Crocker, J. (2008). Mastery goals and contingent self-worth: A field study. Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 12, 135-154. OECD. (2009). OECD Programme for international student assessment: Student questionnaire. Paris: OECD. Polycroni, F., Hatzicristou, C., & Sidiridis, G. (2012). The role of goal orientations and goal structures in explaining classroom social and affective characteristics. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 207-217. Skaalvik, E. & Skaalvik, S. (2013). School goal structure: Association with students´ perception of their teachers as emotionally supportive, academic self concept, intrinsic motivation, effort and help seeking behaviour. International Journal of Educational Research, 61, 5-14. Walker, C. O. (2012). Student perception of classroom achievement goals as predictors of belonging and content instrumentality. Social Psychology of Education, 15, 97-107. Wentzel, K. R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school: The role of parents, teachers and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 202-209. Wolters, C. A. (2004). Advancing achievement goal theory: Using goal structures and goal orientations to predict students' motivation, cognition, and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 236-250.
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