16 SES 07 B, Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs / TPACK
Paper/Pecha Kucha Session
The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) has been the last frame of reference for the adaptation and revision of the new university degrees. After its implementation is important to explore the changes that this new proposal suppose. It is necessary to inquire into how the training of future teachers is working and how they are professionally designed for the exercise of teaching.
This work, framed within a larger project, shows the beliefs and perceptions students of the Primary Teacher's Degree (University of Santiago de Compostela) have about the place of Educational Technology in training. The deepening in this line allows to understand the construction of the professional knowledge during the initial stage of training. It seeks to analyse, identify and interpret the perceptions of future teachers and their knowledge, putting the emphasis on the competencies in which the design of the master's degree curriculum is supported.
For this work we started from the conceptualization of professional knowledge on educational technology analysed/studied by Mishra and Koehler (2008). These authors propose the idea of TPACK (Technological, Pedagogical and Content Knowledge). They consider that the knowledge of teachers in this field has its origin in a complex interrelation between three areas: content, pedagogy and technology.
The improvement of knowledge in these areas facilitates the learning of the TPACK and allows us to solve the challenge of the educational technology integration in the teaching (Brown and Cato, 2008). This perspective helps us to analyse the limited use that teachers make of Educational Technology in the classrooms in the Spanish context (Sigalés, Mominó and Meneses, 2013). In addition, this framework lets us explore the difficulties for an incorporation which gives value of Educational Technology in teaching practices. These difficulties are (probably) rooted in the absence of connection between the degree’s curriculum and the reality of the practice (Tiana, 2013).
On the other hand, we have considered that beliefs and perceptions (Ertmer, 2005) are very relevant to understand the use of technology in the classroom. If we take into account those beliefs, we should analyse the elements that Ertmer and Ottenbreit-Leftwich (2010) consider key for the integration of Technology in the teaching practice. These are: (a) beliefs, attitudes, or pedagogical ideologies; (b) content knowledge; (c) pedagogical knowledge of instructional practices, strategies, methods, or approaches; and (d) novel or altered instructional resources, technology or materials.
These beliefs would be composed of personal and vicarious experiences (Prestidge, 2012). The problem of these beliefs and perspectives is that, in many cases, they are difficult to change. Furthermore, these beliefs can be contradictory with the curricula of the university. Authors such as Tanase and Wang (2010) recognize the strength of these beliefs, given that a long training process is required to work with them.
This theoretical review on the concept of perceptions and beliefs increased our interest in analysing how these take place in education technology in the Primary Teacher's Degree. We are interested in deepening and understanding the roots of the knowledge and beliefs of teachers, which are formed in initial training. If we understand beliefs in this context, in which they are nurtured, then we will understand what will happen later, when they are start working in Primary Schools. This study will also help us to better understand the use of educational technology and the difficulties for its use in classrooms.
Addressing the complex reality of the Primary Teacher's Degree in the context of the EHEA from the perspective of students requires a qualitative methodological approach. This perspective allows us to understand in depth the students vision based on their socialization and professional development. We seek to establish comparisons between them, which help us find a certain transferability degree (Maxwell, 1998). In this way it is possible to understand the set of cases and to have a global perspective. We focused on the students of the University of Santiago de Compostela in the campus of Santiago and Lugo. For the research we employed a cross sectional design (Cohen, Manion and Morrison, 2011) that let us know their beliefs from a time perspective. In this way, it was possible to collect and analyse the information that emerged from the different stages of study. Three main moments of data collection with the students were established and we used complementary techniques for that task. In the first year of the grade we asked them to write a biographical history, about their degree choice. In the second course, they were thoroughly interviewed. Finally, information about last year's students was obtained through discussion groups. The selection of cases was made using an intentional sampling after having conducted a preliminary work to establish the characteristics required. To this end, different indicators were taken into account: pre-university studies, age and sex, in order to look for informants with different profiles and gather as much information about what happens in the degree as possible. Taking into account these profiles, professors looked for students who stood out for their critical analysis and reflection ability in their classrooms. To do the data analysis, all the interviews were transcribed for their treatment with the Atlas-TI software following the proposals of Miles and Huberman (1994). Three main components were used: data reduction, data display, drawing and verifying conclusions. The first two supposed operations of coding and memoing. Then, we used abstracting and comparing. Looking for regularities and developing concepts, we followed a series of alternating inductive and deductive steps in data analysis. We generated hypothesis in a higher level of abstraction.
Students declare that their knowledge of educational technology is very limited: only one subject has dealt specifically with this issue in their degree’s curriculum. They also consider that their preparation is limited, as shown by previous research (Carmona-Mesa & Villa-Ochoa, 2017). This absence leaves future teachers unprotected against the demands that occur in the classrooms (Zeichner and Conklin, 2008). The absence of learning experiences that support the construction of a solid professional knowledge makes us be aware of the risks of this reality. The lack of solid training for their future work in primary schools means that the beliefs and perceptions of Educational Technology acquire special relevance, consolidating these in the reality of the classroom (Mishra and Koehler, 2008; Tondeur, Van Braak, Ertmer & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2017). Teachers ' use of educational technology is very limited. We are talking about a digitalisation of the content and utilization of the university's virtual campus as a simple repository of documentation. A very restrictive use of its possibilities is made and, consequently, the teaching methodology and assessment are maintained in a traditional way, which leads to a disappointment in the expected impact of ICT on teaching models (Cebrián, 2011). This situation highlights a landscape, after its adaptation to the EHEA, with minimum changes; something that was shown in previous investigations conducted before establishing the european framework (Fraga & Gewerc, 2015). The adaptation of the degree to the EHEA does not satisfy the demands of students training. They still have not got enough models to face the challenge of incorporating educational technology in their teaching. This situation opens the possibility of studying the perceptions and beliefs of students in other universities with the adaptation to the EHEA. This research can help develop future alternative practices in Primary Schools with ICT.
•Brown, M. C. & Cato, B. (2008). Preface. En Colbert, J. (Ed.) Handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) for Educators. (pp. VII-VIII). New York: Routledge. •Ertmer, P. A. (2005). Teacher pedagogical beliefs: The final frontier in our quest for technology integration? Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 25-39. •Carmona-Mesa, J.A. & Villa-Ochoa, J.A. (2017). Necesidades de formación en futuros profesores para el uso de tecnologías. Resultados de un estudio documental. Revista Paradigma, 38 (1), 169 – 185. •Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2011). Research methods in education. London: Routledge. •Ertmer, P. A., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T. (2010). Teacher Technology Change: How Knowledge, Confidence, Beliefs and Culture Intersect. JRTE, 42(3), 255-284. •Fraga-Varela, F., & Gewerc, A. (2015). Creencias sobre Tecnología Educativa: una mirada desde la biografía escolar y universitaria de una maestra en formación inicial. Revista Latinoamericana de Tecnología Educativa, 14(3), 23-34. •Maxwell, J. A. (1998). Designing a Qualitative Study. En Bickman, D. J. (Ed.), Handbook of Applied Social Research Method (pp. 69-100). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. •Miles, M., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: a sourcebook of new methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage. •Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A new framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054. •Prestidge, S. (2012). The beliefs behind the teacher that influences their ICT practices. Computers & Education, 58, 449-458 •Sigalés, C., Mominó, J.M. & Meneses, J. (2013). TIC e innovación en la educación escolar española. Estado y perspectivas. In A. Sacristán, (Comp.), Sociedad del conocimiento, tecnología y educación, (pp. 305-318). Madrid: Morata •Tanase, M., & Wang, J. (2010). Initial epistemological beliefs transformation in one teacher education classroom: Case study of four preservice teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 1238-1248. •Tiana, A. (2013). Los cambios recientes en la formación inicial del profesorado en España: una reforma incompleta. Revista Española de Educación Comparada, nº 22, 39-58. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/reec.22.2013.9322. Retrieved from http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/REEC/article/view/9322/0 •Tondeur, J., Van Braak, J., Ertmer, P.A. & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2017). Understanding the relationship between teachers’ pedagogical beliefs and technology use in education: a systematic review of qualitative evidence. Educational Technology Research and Develoment, 65(3), 555-575. •Zeichner, K., & Conklin, H. (2008). Teacher education programs as sites for teacher preparation. In Cochran-Smith, M., Feiman-Nemser, S., y McIntyre, D. J. (Eds.). Handbook of Research on Teacher Education. Enduring Questions in Changing Contexts. Third Edition. (pp. 269-289). New York: Routledge
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