30 SES 11 A, Critical Perspectives and Learning Apporaches to Global and Environmental Citizenship Approaches
Global Citizenship Education (GCE) has received increased promotion as a means of supporting children and young people to develop their knowledge and understanding of multiple global issues (Bourn, 2015; Fricke & Gathercole, 2015). Despite this increasing prominence, it is apparent that GCE remains a highly contested notion (Marshall, 2005; Hartung, 2017; Jooste & Heleta, 2017). Several authors have proposed a codification of GCE with conceptualisations transcending the political spectrum (Sohyn, 2014). For example, Shultz (2007) argues that GCE may be grounded in neoliberal, radical or transformative approaches. Gaudelli (2009) provides a detailed framework of the visions purportedly underpinning GCE, also including a neoliberal perspective alongside nationalist, Marxist, world justice and cosmopolitan views. Tawil (2013) provides a typology which incorporates humanistic, environmental and political visions for GCE. Andreotti (2006) presents the conceptualisations as a dichotomy - between individual-humanitarian approaches and a structural approaches, or what is commonly termed ‘soft’ versus ‘critical’.
The proposed paper draws on an analysis of nine Global Citizenship Education teacher education programmes across four EU countries: Austria, the Czech Republic, Ireland and Italy. This paper explores the question of how GCE is conceptualised as a framework for teacher education based on findings from a comparative analysis of data drawn from a range of teacher education programmes. Specifically it explores, in greater depth, the theme of ‘GCE Conception’ and five associated sub-themes. Firstly, the sub-theme of ‘GCE Vision’ is explored, which considers the importance of the underlying assumptions which frame the conception of GCE. Secondly, the paper considers the various ‘GCE Issues’ which are integrated within teacher education programmes. Thirdly, the paper explores how GCE is defined within teacher education and the terms of reference across the programmes are explored. Fourthly, the ‘GCE Competencies’ as defined by teacher educators and teachers are unearthed. Finally, the paper analyses the profile of a ‘Global Citizenship Educator’ as perceived by the various actors involved in the design, delivery of teacher education programmes across the four countries in considered. Apparent here is the important role played by NGOs in promoting a vision of GCE as transformational practice (Tallon, 2012).
The methodology adopted in the research from which this paper is drawn is a multiple-site case study design (Yin, 2014), using ethnography as overall methodological approach. The research project's theoretical framework was qualitative, seeking a description of practices and meaning making to behavioural patterns. The four countries in which the analysis takes place are Austria, Czech Republic, Ireland and Italy. Within each country, the research focused on on an analysis of two typologies of settings: a) a training course for in-service primary school teachers organized by the project partner in the framework of the project, b) a training course organized by a different organization on themes related to Global Citizenship Education. The selection of the second setting followed the criteria of extreme case sampling. This setting was selected for being as different as possible from the initial one, as far as approach, goals, teachers’ trainers and organization (but on the same or related theme). The main criteria for in-service training course identification were: a) Accessibility to the course; b) Different typology of organization as the theoretical assumption behind this choice is that being organized by a different institution the ideas behind course implementation are more likely to be different, c) Similar to GCE in topic, or related issues; d) Addressing primary school teachers; eventually even a pre-service, if this allows us to have a course put into place by a different organization; e) Similar duration of hours, possibly not one-shot course or single seminar. For each of the 9 cases analysed (2 per country except for Italy where 3 programmes were explored). We have collected 5 types of data: 1. Field notes of teachers education session and of planning sessions among course organizers; 2. Formal interviews both with trainers and course promoters; 3. Informal interviews: with key informant that we have had the opportunity exchange words referring to our research questions; 4. Projects documents such as course leaflet, key resources used for the course, description of the course made the course organizers 5. Visual data (if available) taken during the training sessions, 6. Trainees’ questionnaires administered before and after training to all trainees. Through inductive analysis, a codebook encompassing the main themes and subthemes derived from the data was developed. This was followed by a comparative analysis of these key issues, upon which this proposed papers draws.
Grounded upon the comparative analysis and the associated themes and sub-themes, this paper presents an argument as to how teacher education programmes at the focus of this research present a transformational approach to GCE, where the concepts of critical thinking and self-reflection are perceived as the foundations towards action for a more just and sustainable world. This conception echoes aspects of Freirean pedagogy, itself a important GCE theoretical framework (Scheunpflug & Asbrand, 2006). However, less evident was the ‘critical’ approach to GCE, illustrated in the work of Andreotti (2006). This paper then considers how these conceptualisations might frame the political and potentially transformative aspects of sustainable development. Within this conclusion, the integration of GCE is proposed as an interdisciplinary matter. GCE teacher education appears as not only a vehicle for the development of skills but as a process which may underpin attitudinal change. Learner-centred dialogical methodologies are perceived to offer a gateway for the introduction of GCE, across multiple thematic areas, in to teachers’ classroom practice. Finally, the paper considers practitioners belief in the potential of GCE teachers as participants in transformative modes of education.
Bourn, D. (2015). The Theory and Practice of Development Education: A Pedagogy for Global Social Justice. Abingdon: Routledge. De Oliveira Andreotti, V. (2006). Soft versus critical global citizenship education. Development Education in Policy and Practice, 3, 21–31. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137324665 Fricke, H. J., & Gathercole, C. (2015). Education for Global Citizenship. Brussels. Gaudelli, W. (2009). Heuristics of Global Citizenship Discourses towards Curriculum Enhancement. Journal of Curriculum Theorizing, 25(1), 68–86. Jooste, N., & Heleta, S. (2017). Global Citizenship Versus Globally Competent Graduates. Journal of Studies in International Education. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315316637341 Hartung, C. (2017). Global citizenship incorporated: competing responsibilities in the education of global citizens. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 38(1), 16–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/01596306.2015.1104849 Marshall, H. (2005). Developing the global gaze y Citizenship Education : Exploring The Perspectives Of Global Education NGO Workers In England. International Journal of Citizenship and Teacher Education, 1(2), 76–92. Retrieved from http://www.citized.info Scheunpflug, A., & Asbrand, B. (2006). Global education and education for sustainability. Environmental Education Research, 12(1), 33–46. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504620500526446 Shultz, L. (2007). Educating for global citizenship: Conflicting agendas and understandings. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 53(3), 248–258. Sohyun, A. (2014). Preparing Elementary Teachers as Global Citizenship Educators. Journal of Education, 194(3), 25–38. https://doi.org/10.1177/002205741419400304 Tallon, R. (2012). Emotion and agency within NGO development education: what is at work and what is at stake in the classroom? International Journal of Development Education and Global Learning, 4(2), 5–22. Tawil, S. (2013). Education for “global citizenship”: A framework for discussion (ERF Working Paper Series). Paris. Yin, R. K. (2014). Case study research: Design and methods. (5th ed.). London: Sage Publication.
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