04 SES 02 E, Students at Risk: Dealing with the social and emotional dimensions of inclusive education
Self-concept is a multidimensional construct, which relates to other dimensions of development and learning as well as environmental factors. It can be described as how people perceive and feel about themselves, their beliefs about their abilities and attributes (Marsh & Craven, 2006). In this context, self-concept plays a central role in the psychosocial adjustment process and participation in the social lives (school, family and community) of children and adolescents at risk due to neurodevelopmental disorders and adverse social and family situations. Currently, there is a broad consensus in the scientific community about the importance of the construct for development and its relationship with other internal and environmental factors (Felizardo, 2017; Piers & Herzberg, 2002; Veiga & Leite, 2016). The study of self-concept relative to populations at risk, specifically in adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders or Special Educational Needs (SEN) and adolescents from disadvantaged backgrounds (social risk) is justified by the implications for personal development. The aim of this study is to understand the influence of sociodemographic and occupational variables in the development of self-concept in students with neurodevelopmental (Special Educational Needs - SEN) and social risk, in order to outline actions, which will promote their personal and social adjustment.
This is an exploratory, cross-sectional study, using a non-probabilistic, convenience sample for this purpose, comprised of 124 students with developmental (SEN) and social risk attending school groups in the northern region of Portugal. Their ages range from 13 to 17 years, with a mean age of 14.64 (±1.28 SD). The data collection instruments were as follows: a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale, PHCSCS2 (Piers & Herzberg, 2002), 60 items, the Portuguese adapted version by Veiga and Domingues (2012). In this study we used the Adolescents’ Self-concept Short Scale, ASCSS (Veiga & Leite, 2016), a reduced scale of the original scale. This instrument consists of six subscales that assess specific aspects of self: Anxiety, Physical Appearance, Behaviour, Popularity, Happiness, and Intellectual Status.
The results show that there are statistically significant differences in self-concept, depending on the type of risk, gender and participation in free time activities; however, no differences were found as a function of age. The results show promising lines of analysis, and as our aim was to outline socio-educational actions, which promote the self-concept of students with developmental (SEN) and social risk in their lives (family, school and community), thereby enhancing better personal adjusted and well-being (Felizardo, 2017; Felizardo & Ribeiro, 2015). As the literature emphasizes, self-concept is a central factor in children and adolescents’evaluation processes (Dunn et al., 2007) because it works as a powerful protector of adverse, individual social and family conditions. Educational and therapeutic actions and programmes enable its development (Kenny & McEachern, 2009). Despite the contribution of this study to improving understanding of the functioning of the self-concept in adolescents at risk, this issue requires more research with longitudinal methodologies and broader samples.
Dunn, D., Shields, N., Taylor, N. F., & Dodd, K. J. (2007). A systematic review of the self-concept of children with cerebral palsy and perceptions of parents and teachers. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 27(3), 55-71. doi:10.1300/J006v27n03_05 Felizardo, S. & Ribeiro, E. (2015). Necessidades Educativas Especiais e funcionamento parental: indicadores de bem-estar e suporte social. Revista de Estudios e Investigación en Psicología Y Educación, Extr.(11), 91-93, eISSN: 2386-7418. doi: 10.17979/reipe.2015.0.11.616 Felizardo, S. (2017). Special Educational Needs, social risk and self-concept: a proposal for socio-educational intervention. In Z. Bekirogullari, M. Y. Minas, & R. X. Thambusamy (Eds.), The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences (pp. 882-890). UK: Future Academy. ISSN: 2357-1330 Felizardo, S., Cantarinha, D., Alves, A. B., Ribeiro, E. J., & Amante, M. J. (2016). Students` involvement in school and parental support: contributions to the socio-educational intervention. In Z. Bekirogullari, M. Y. Minas, & R. X. Thambusamy (Eds.), The European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 278-287). UK: Future Academy. http://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2016.11.29 Kenny, M. C., & McEachern, A. (2009). Children's Self-Concept: A Multicultural Comparison. Professional School Counseling, 12(3), 207-212. Marsh, H. W., & Craven, R. G. (2006). Reciprocal effects of self-concept and performance from a multidimensional perspective: Beyond seductive pleasure and unidimensional perspectives. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(2), 133-163. Piers, E., & Herzberg, D. (2002). Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale (2ª ed.). Wilshire Boulevard, CA: Western Psychological Services. Polak, K. A., Puttler, L. I., & Ilgen, M. A. (2012). The relationship between structural aspects of selfconcept and psychosocial adjustment in adolescents from alcoholic families. Substance Use & Misuse, 47, 827–836. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2012.672536 Sameroff, A. (2010). Dynamic developmental systems: Chaos and order. In G. W. Evans & T. D. Wachs (Eds.), Chaos and its influence on children’s development: An ecological perspective (pp.255-264). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Veiga, F., & Leite, A. (2016). Adolescents’ Self-concept Short Scale: A version of PHCSCS. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 217, 631 – 637. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.02.079
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