11 SES 17, Leaving School: Impacts of social categories and power relations in reconstruction of educational biographies of adolescents in Iceland and Germany
Research Questions and Theoretical Framework This research reconstructs the educational biographies of white, male, German working-class youth. We interviewed eleven adolescents who had finished secondary school (10th grade) at the age of 16-18 years old. The research focus is twofold. First, it examines how the teenagers (re-)construct their educational biography and their previous educational career. Secondly, it aims to identify the consequences of (school) structural issues. Specifically, it examines the ways in which young people interpret the school as an educational institution and as a social sphere, their experiences of exclusion, discrimination and violence, how they deal with the normalization processes and pedagogical requirements, and lastly how they position themselves towards the school's disciplinary regime. The main research interest lies in the production and reproduction of (educational) inequalities and the patterns of (institutional) discrimination (Gomolla/Radtke 2009; Becker/Lauterbach 2016; Baader/Freitag 2107). The theoretical background is based on cultural and conflict theory approaches, such as the work of Pierre Bourdieu and Paul Willis (Willis 1981; Bourdieu 1994; Bourdieu 1995), as well as on social determinacy approaches of the masculinity category (Meuser 2010; Connell 2015). Methods and Methodology The research method is done through the framework of educational biographical research (Marotzki 1999; Ecarius 2006). The data consists of eleven narrative interviews with male, proletarian, white, German adolescents aged 16-18 years old, who graduated in 2016 with a middle school diploma. The data was collected in 2017 and the length of the interviews is between 45 and 145 minutes. The evaluation of the data was carried out in three steps according to Schütze's (1983) narrative analysis: 1. systematic case-by-case analysis; 2. open-inductive coding method; and 3. categorical case and group comparison (synchronous level). Outcomes The school has achieved only little resonance for the adolescents (Rosa/Endres 2016). Educational opportunities and processes are perceived to be largely disconnected from their interests, life and learning needs. This is shown, among others, in their low achievement and effort, poor school performance and disciplinary issues that have consequences for the perpetuation of educational inequalities. The "resonance void" is often filled through positively experienced male peer-group relationships that act openly or subversively against the school disciplinary regime, but which are marked by rival aggression or (violent) confrontation and border violations in the form of bullying, social exclusion, sexist, racist or homophobic behavior.
Baader, Meike Sophia / Freytag, Tatjana (eds.) (2017): Bildung und Ungleichheit in Deutschland. Wiesbaden: VS Becker, Rolf / Lauterbach, Wolfgang (eds.) (2016): Bildung als Privileg. Erklärungen und Befunde zu den Ursachen von Bildungsungleichheit. Wiesbaden: VS Bourdieu, Pierre (1994): Die Feinen Unterschiede. Kritik der gesellschaftlichen Urteilskraft. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp. Bourdieu, Pierre (1995): Sozialer Raum und "Klassen". Leçon sur la leçon. Zwei Vorlesungen. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp. Connel, Raewyn (2015): Der gemachte Mann. Konstruktion und Krise von Männlichkeiten. Wiesbaden: VS. Ecarius, Jutta (2006): Erziehungswissenschaftliche Biografieforschung, in: Lutz, Helma / Schiebel, Martina / Tuider, Elisabeth (eds.) (2017). Handbuch Biographieforschung. Wiesbaden: VS, pp. 163-174. Gomolla, Mechthild/Radtke, Frank-Olaf (2009): Institutionelle Diskriminierung. Die Herstellung ethnischer Differenz in der Schule. Wiesbaden: VS. Marotzki, Winfried (2006): Forschungsmethoden und -methodologie der Erziehungswissenschaftlichen Biographieforschung. In: Krüger, Heinz-Hermann/Marotzki, Winfried (Hrsg.): Handbuch erziehungswissenschaftliche Biografieforschung. Wiesbaden: VS, pp. 11-135. Meuser, Michael (2010): Geschlecht und Männlichkeit. Soziologische Theore und kulturelle Deutungsmuster. Wiesbaden: VS. Rosa, Hartmut / Endres, Wolfgang (2016): Resonanzpädagogik: Wenn es im Klassenzimmer knistert. Weinheim: Beltz. Schütze, Fritz (1983): Biographieforschung und narratives Interview, in: Neue Praxis, 13(3), pp. 283-293. Willis Paul (1981). Learning to Labor. How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
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