30 SES 13, Scaling ESD: Inclusion and exclusion when introducing ESD-activities in diverse contexts Part 2
Symposium continued from 30 SES 12 B
During the UN Decade on Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) implementation of global and national ESD policy often took the form of pilot projects (UNESCO, 2013). In the Global Action Plan (GAP) that fol-lowed the decade, ‘scaling-up’ of said pilot projects was presented as the next step in implementing ESD policy (UNESCO, 2014). The paper studies how scaling is both enabled and constricted by the subjectification of those involved in ESD-activities. To this end, we posit scaling as a learning pro-cess. In the paper, we study the case of the Alforja Educativa (Educational Knapsack) an Ecuadorean ESD-activity addressing antibiotic resistance (Jasovský et al., 2016; Cars et al., 2008). The Alforja Educativa emphasises the subject positions of those involved in scaling the ESD-activity making it an interesting case to study subjectification (Davies, 2006; Foucault, 1982). Subjectification is exemplified by the expectations placed primarily on chil-dren in and outside of school involving a tension between an open-ended, learner-defined approach and the promotion of specific metaphors of ABR grounded in what is described as ancestral knowledge. Utilising the pedagogical method of writing to learn (Dysthe et al., 2000) data was collected through a number of reflective writing exercises held during a workshop on the Alforja Educativa with educational practitioners in Ecuador. The writing to learn method centres on recurring writing exercises were the participants were provided opportunities, based on their thoughts and experiences, to reflect on how the educational content and methods of the Alforja Educativa could be adapted to their context. The paper shows that flattening the plane of scaling subjects enables scaling that through a shift of ownership of the ESD-activity has depth, is sustainable over time and is able to evolve in the face of changing challenges. Meanwhile chal-lenging existing subject positions can result in resistance from scaling sub-jects. Furthermore, the scaling subjects acquire certain experiences and knowledge related to the context, which have possibilities in enabling the adaption of the ESD activity but also carries the risk of expectations about what subject positions to which those involved in scaling should submit. Finally, subject positions of those involved in scaling ESD-activities emerge as scaling subjects in transactional relationships with both context and the ESD-activity. Scaling as the next step in the implementation of ESD policy therefore needs to focus not only on the ESD-activity, but to also consider where the activity will be introduced and who will be involved.
Cars, O., Murray, M., Nordberg, O., Sivaraman, S., Lundborg, C. S., So, A. D., & Tomson, G. 2008. Meeting the Challenge of Antibi-otic Resistance. British Medical Journal, 337. Retrieved from http://www.bmj.com/content/337/bmj.a1438 Davies, B. (2006). Subjectification: the relevance of Butler’s analysis for education. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 27(4), 425-438. Dysthe, O., Hertzberg, F., Hoel, T. L., & Andersson, S. (2011). Skriva för att lära: skrivande i högre utbildning. Lund: Studentlitteratur. Foucault, M. (1982). The subject and power. In D. Faubion (Ed.), Es-sential works of Foucault 1954–1984. Volume 3, Power (pp. 326–348). London: Penguin Books. Jasovský, D., Littmann, J., Zorzet, A., & Cars, O. 2016. Antimicrobial resistance-a threat to the world’s sustainable development. Upp-sala Journal of Medical Sciences, 121(3), 159–164. UNESCO. 2014a. Shaping the Future We Want: UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014): Final Report, DESD Moni-toring and Evaluation. Accessed 27 June 2017. url:http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002303/230302e.pdf UNESCO. 2014b. UNESCO Roadmap for Implementing the Global Action Programme on Education for Sustainable Development. Paris. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002305/230514e.pdf
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