16 SES 06 A, Developing Student Teachers’ Digital Competence
The use of Information and communication technology (ICT) in education seems to be a controversial topic (Langford, Narayan and von Glahn, 2016). There are different perceptions regarding the use of ICT in education. The use of ICT can be perceived as a distraction (Goundar, 2014), or the use of ICT can be perceived as beneficial and helpful for achieving learning goals (Liaw & Huang, 2012). One of our aims is to examine student teachers attitude towards ICT in different countries. However, when mapping and comparing student teachers’ attitude towards ICT across countries, it is important to develop an argument about validity. It is therefore necessary to know that any differences across countries are not due to the existence of measurement bias. The latter indicates that the questions used to measure perceived usefulness of ICT operates differently across the countries. This paper draws on survey results conducted in three countries participating in the Erasmus+ funded project “Developing ICT in teacher education”. In 2017, 1,463 first-year student teachers from Ireland, Norway and Spain answered questions about how they perceived the use of ICT. As mentioned above, when comparing groups it is critical to have evidence how the questions operate in the sub-groups of the sample (Dimitrov, 2010). We need to know that the questions about usefulness of ICT work in the same way across the groups of students. Brown (2006) advises using a multi-group approach in order to test for measurement invariance. This is based on comparing several models that differ in how the perceived usefulness of ICT is specified (e.g., factor loadings, item intercepts, item residual variances) across the groups. First, we examine whether the structure of the theoretical factor model is supported in all countries (configural invariance). Second, the factor loadings are constrained to be equal across groups (metric invariance). Third, checking that the variables have the same meaning across groups by constraining the item thresholds/intercepts (scalar invariance). Preliminary analysis shows that the multi-group approach provides insight and understanding regarding the attitude towards ICT across countries. The details of the analysis will be presented more extensively in the conference.
Brown, T.A. (2006) Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research. London: The Guilford Press. Dimitrov, D.M. (2010). Testing for factorial invariance in the context of construct validation. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 43, pp. 121–149. Goundar, S. (2014). The Distraction of Technology in the Classroom. Journal of Education & Human Development, 3(1), 211-229. Langford, S., Narayan, A., & von Glahn, N. (2016). Revisiting the Technology and Students Learning Debates: Critical Issues and Multiple Perspectives. Technology and Student Learning, 9(2), 1-15. Liaw, S.S., & Huang, H.M. (2013). Perceived satisfaction, perceived usefulness and interactive learning environments as predictors to self-regulation in e-learning environments. Computers & Education, 60(1), 14–24.
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