14 SES 08 A, Parental Engagement, Goals and Communication: Influence on Students' Outcomes and Self-concept
The achievement goals are defined as the person’s effort to persist and engage with a specific task. Firstly, the research established two kinds of goals: performance goals and mastery goals. Those persons with performance goals try showing their competence comparing with other people, meanwhile, people with mastery goals look for their competences’ skill without matching with other’s success (Elliot, 1999; Elliot & Church; 1997 Rawsthorne & Elliot, 1999). However, it has discovered that performance goals can divide into two different goals: performance-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals (Elliot, 1999; Elliot & Church, 1997; Elliot & Harackiewicz, 1996; Rawsthorne & Elliot, 1999). Depending on one or other achievement goals, a person can have different consequences on the subject’s psychological wellbeing, for instance, people with performance goals, they usually have an adaptive self-concept (Wimmer, Lackener, Papousek, & Paechter, 2018)
Focusing on the family, as primary socialization context, the topic of “achievement goals” has not studied deeply. Mainly, to know how this construct can influence on the youth’s or children’s psychological wellbeing. As long the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) showcase that Family is one the most important social agents to be able to get it, through 2030 Agenda. The Division for Social Policy and Development, in the 2016 Family expert group meeting, made several recommendations about how a family can contribute with the SDG (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2016). The UN endorsed the supporting of children and youth wellbeing. Inside of this recommendation, it is focusing on incorporating “family perspective (including on parent-youth relationships) in the design of youth targeted polices”. Furthermore, it is said the need to “promote the psychological wellbeing of children and youth”, and “to promote child and youth participation in the decisions that concern them in the family, and the Community, in line with, the principle of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child” (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2016, p. 2).
Following with SDG’s goals, the research has been supporting that when parents have mastery goals, their children pay more attention tasks, and they are more tenacious, more curious, enjoy and they make an effort in their school tasks (Gonida, Voulala & Kiosseoglou, 2009). Furthermore, when parents used performance goals, there is no correlation with academic engagement (Gonida et al., 2009), nor children’s academic achievement (Gonida et al., 2009), and the students can develop a disruptive success (Ablard & Parker, 1997). Moreover, the relation between achievement goals and academic development is depending on youths’ age (Gonida et al., 2007, 2014) and the person’s sociological context (Maglio et al., 2014).
There are prolific family research about how parental attitudes, and behaviors can outcome on their children’s prosocial and antisocial behaviors (Zacarías-Salinas & Andrade-Palos, 2014). Following this trend, Mageu, Bureau, Ranger, Allen & Soenens (2016) assessed the three parental achievement goals, and, they stated that depending on the type of parental achievement goal, it progress different development psychosocial patterns in adolescents and youths.
This paper has the aim to analyze the parental achievement goals by parents’ gender, children’s gender and self-concept.
Methodology Participants The participants were 486 parents from 304 undergraduate students. Regards of undergraduate students, they were from Pedagogy (40.8%), Primary Teacher (33.6%), Psychology (15.8%) and Computer Engineering (9.9%). The 69.4% (n = 211) were women, and the 15.5% (n = 47) men. Respect of parents, the fathers’ mean age was 51.95 (DT = 6.04), and, the mothers’ mean age was 49.95 (DT = 5.29). Measures Parental Achievement Goals Questionnaire (Mageau et al. 2016). Cuestionario parental de metas orientadas al logro. This instrument sets up 11 liker-items, from 1 (Do not agree at all) to 7(Very strongly agree). The Spanish team had the Professor Geneviève Mageau’s permission (University of Montreal) to do the instrument’s Spanish adaptation. Firstly, the instrument was adapted by forward-backward translation (Hambelton, Merenda, & Spielberger, 2005). This measure assesses the parental achievement goals regards their children’s tasks. It evaluates the three parental goals: parental mastery goals (3 items, p.e.: I want my child to do his/her best in the activities he/she is involved in”, original version’s α = .69, Spanish version’ s α = .74 ), parental performance-approach goals (4 items, p.e.: I would like my child to excel in his/her activities, original’s α = .80; Spanish version’s α = .85), and, parental performance-avoidance goals (4 items, p.e.: I encourage my child to avoid activities where he/she might not be the best α = .85; Spanish version’s α = .81) AF5. Autoconcepto Forma 5 (García & Musitu, 2014). AF 5 Self-Concept Form 5. This self-questionnaire assess the person’s self-concept regard of five dimensions of your life, including Social, Academic/Work, Family, Emotional and Physical. The instrument includes 30 Likert items with a range from 1 (completely disagree) to 99 points (completely agrees). The internal consistency is .82 in Spanish population, by each self-concept dimension is Social, α = .70; Academic/Work α = .88; Family, α = .77; Emotional α = .73; and Physical, α = .74) Procedure All the first semester, the students was reported about the study’s aim, afterwards, they received the two questionnaires, one for mother and another for father, inside of close envelope. It was advised them not to open the envelopes until their parents got it. Previous to fill the questionnaire, each parent could know the institution and the person responsible of this research and the study’s goal. Also, as parents and students given their consent before to fill the questionnaires.
We want to analyze the parents’ gender, student’s gender and students’ degree can explain the differences in the three kinds of parental achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and performance-avoid). To get this goal, we are doing the MANOVA, to analyze the mean differences and calculate the effect size of predictor variables on criterion variables (Parental achievement goals). Previous results, we found differences between students’ Perceived family supports and barriers, by students on their psychological development. Currently, we are focusing on parents’ point of view. Furthermore, we are running a Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression to discover the parental achievement goals’ predictive value on students’ self-concept.
Ablard, K. E. & Parker, W. D. (1997). Parents' achievement goals and perfectionism in their academically talented children. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 26(6), 651-667. Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34(3), 169-189. Elliot, A.J. & Church, M. (1997). A Hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(1), 218-232. Elliot, A. J. & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1996). Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: a mediational analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(3), 461-475. García, F., & Musitu, G. (2014). AF5: Autoconcepto Forma 5 (2ª ed.). Madrid, España. TEA. Gonida, E.N., Karabenick, S. A., Makara, K. A., & Hatzikyriakou, G. A. (2014). Perceived parent goals and student goal orientations as predictors of seeking or not seeking help: Does age matter? Learning and Instruction, 33, 120-130. Gonida, E. N., Voulala, K. & Kiosseoglou, G. (2009). Student’s achievement goal orientations and their behavioral and emotional engagement: co-examining the role of perceived goal structures and parent goals during adolescence. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 53-60. Hambleton, R., Merenda, P., & Spielberger, C. (2005). Adapting Educational and Psychological Tests for Cross-Cultural Assessment. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Maglio, A.L., Molina, M.F., Raimundi, M.J., González, M.A., & Schmidt, V. (2014). El Apoyo Familiar en la Interfaz Familia-Trabajo. Construcción de una escala para su evaluación. Revista Iberoamericana de Diagnóstico y Evaluación – e Avaliação Psicológica. RIDEP, 37(1), 187-202. Mageau, G.A., Bureau, S., Ranger, F., Allen, M-P & Soenens, B. (2016). The role of parental achievement goals in preciting autonomy-supportive and controlling parenting. Journal of Children and Family Studies, 25, 1702-1711 Rawsthorne, L. J., & Elliot, A.J. (1999). Achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: a meta-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3(4), 326-344. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2016). Family policies & 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda from https://www.un.org/development/desa/family/meetings-events/family-policies-and-the-2030-sustainable-development-agenda.html. Wimmer, S., Lackner, H.K., Papousek, I. & Paechter, M. (2018). Goal Orientations and Activation of Approach Versus Avoidance Motivation While Awaiting an Achievement Situation in the Laboratory. Front. Psychol. 9:1552. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01552 Zacarías-Salinas, X., & Andrade-Palos, P. (2014). Una Escala para evaluar Prácticas Parentales que promueven la Conducta Prosocial en Preadolesentes, Revista Iberoamericana de Diagnóstico y Evaluación – e Avaliação Psicológica. RIDEP, 38(2), 117-135.
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