17 SES 01 A, Education in times of totalitarianism
The study of the propaganda produced during the European Totalitarianisms had experienced a renewal due the recent populisms movements. We can see how the historical studies let us to understand better the process of spreading radical ideologies in the past but also in the current days. With the nuances of the study of the resistance reception of the official documentaries, we can see how the narratives were built and how people can be resilient to the biased information. As we could observed during the analysis of the official documentaries produced during the Francoism, the educational subject (we found 1571 entries referred to the education during the 35 years weekly NoDo) was one the themes privileged for the regimes in order to conform a unidimensional vision in which prevailed the idea of a good caring state. Despite what propaganda was spreading as a unique narrative, when we analyse the educational situation and the educational politics in detail, we can observe a clear gap between what was said and what was done. One clear example of this dissonance is showed by Antonio Viñao Frago in the text “El plan quinquenal de construcciones escolares de 1957-1961” [The quinquennial plan of school constructions from 1957-1961] (Viñao, 2018).
This imbalance between the historical evidences and the audio-visual propaganda in the educational subject lead us the need to study the productions in context, reframing the historical source of the documentaries during our researches but also, to show it clearly in our social diffusion in order to avoid misunderstandings about the past. So, by avoiding simple narratives, we need to contrast the information using multi-narratives ways of showing the past. We think that one of the outputs of this kind of informative productions could be to give different ways of receiving the information and to train an active receptive sensibility (Warning, 1989). Our proposal, then, is based in a research about the construction of an active reception of the history of the education using the propaganda documentaries contrasted with different narratives produced during the Francoism.
With the research project ARAEF as a frame, we have developed a register of the different official documentaries produced during the Francoism (1940-1970). Using ethnographical and descriptive methods, we have established a framework to understand the pedagogical idealised model exposed by the totalitarian regime. This model is being contrasted with other European totalitarian models developed during the XX Century through Seminars which works as a ‘group discussion’. Within these discussions we can underline the common trends of the totalitarian regimes but also, the specificities of every regime studied. Using the methods of the “critical content analysis” methodology applied to the audio-visual and visual sources, we might develop a model to research about the aesthetical sources of the history of education (Dussel, Priem, 2017). Modelling the categories involved in the analysis, we are going to be able to establish an approach to the themes series and see in a diachronic way the questions related to the institutionalized education (formal and social education) and to the social movements and demonstrations as an indoctrination process. Through this process, we can underline the aspects and element hidden in the productions. Finally, with the purpose to contrast the information spread as a propaganda about the educational subjects, we recollected different multinarrative sources which allow us to establish different possible ways of developing a critical reception of the history of education (Grosvenor, Myers, 2014) and we disseminate them using the new medias (blogs and contra-documentaries).
The conclusion expected of this research are related to: - Have a register of contrasted information of the audio-visual sources used as a propaganda during a totalitarian regime, like the Francoism contrasted with the European totalitarian regimes. - Have a model to analysis in a critical way an infra-used source in history of education, like the propaganda documentary. - Disseminate the results for building different narratives of our past.
Dussel, Inés (2018), ‘La verdad en la imagen propagandística. Reflexiones sobre un corpus enigmático (westerbork, 1944)’ [Truth in the propagandistic image. Reflections on an enigmatic corpus (Westerbork, 1944)] in Historia y Memoria de la Educación, 8, 23-58 Dussel, Inés and Priem, Karin (2017), ‘The visual in histories of education: a reappraisal’, Journal Paedagogica Historica. International Journal of the History of Education, 53, 6, 641-649 Grosvenor, Ian and Myers, Kevin (2014) ‘Cultural learning and historical memory: a research agenda’, Encounters/Encuentros/Rencontres on Education, 15, 3-21 Jauss, Hans Robert and Benzinger, Elizabeth (1970) Literary history as a challenge to literary theory, New Literary History, 2, 1, 7-37 Viñao Frago, Antonio, ‘El plan quinquenal de construcciones escolares de 1957-1961’ [The quinquennial plan of school constructions from 1957-1961] in Conceptual Challenges: Propaganda, Ideologies and Education, 2018. Online document: http://mon.uvic.cat/araef-conceptual-challenges/2018/09/07/antonio-vinao-frago-el-plan-quinquenal-de-construcciones-escolares-de-1957-1961/ Warning, Rainer (ed.) Estética de la recepción [Aesthetics of Reception], Madrid: Visor, 1989 Weber, Stephanie and Matthias Mühling (eds.) After the Fact. Propaganda in the 21st Century, Munich: Lenbachhaus, 2017
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