04 SES 12 E, Reflecting on Practices To Build More Inclusive Schools
Several studies have dealt with inclusion as in the age of cosmopolitanism and globalization, diversity is a present-day reality and inclusion is a challenge. Following the guidelines of Slee (2012), Beach (2017), Vigo y Dieste (2017) and Korsgaard, Larsen and Wiberg (2018) inclusion could be interpret inside the educational context as a form of social and democratic justice connected to every single student. In the 21stCentury the term inclusive education spread into different and complex fields associated with different issues such as race, class, gender, language, and social power (Artiles and Kozleski, 2007). It is in this cultural circle that this research takes place.
This paper looks at two 21st century Disney-Pixar films from an inclusive perspective in order to explore the possibilities of these movies in the classroom so as to promote inclusive education in the Primary school. Disney portrays in its texts topics about inclusion such as race, genre, ethnicity, mobility, border cities, through which it can be discovered as a reality that without guide could be misinterpreted (Alonso, 2003; Cheu, 2013 and, Brode and Brode, 2016). In this way, the analyses of Disney animation movies with specific inclusive values, could create an interesting tool to introduce this type of education in the classroom. The texts that have been chosen are Monsters Inc. (Pete Docter, 2001) and Tinker Bell and the Secret of the Wings (Peggy Holmes and Roberts Gannaway,2012).
Cinema is a practice that may bring students into contact with the Other, creating new feelings of understanding and emotional attachment (Saito, 2010). In particular, Disney animated features have been the object of a considerable amount of scholarly research in Film Studies. The company's flexibility to adapt to a changing socio-historical and industrial context is usually pointed out as one of the defining features of the studio's strategy to keep its leading place regarding cinematic animation throughout the decades (Hastings, 1993; Deleyto, 2003). Regardless of the specific approach chosen (industrial, historical or narrative), most scholarly work on Disney films is concerned with the ideology of the films, such is the case of these authors: Giroux (1999), Davis (2007) and Meinel (2016).
Based on common issues manifested within inclusive education researchers, this paper will develop its arguments. The key factors that have been chosen to analyse the texts are moments that encourage: empathic understanding of the Other, of their personal life, their emotions and problems (Nussbaum, 1997), challenging the ways in which social systems perpetrate social inequalities (Liasidou, 2012), listening to people’s voices (Vigo and Beach, 2017), the response of society to mobility and the possibilities of inter-cultural encounters (Rizvi, 2009), and finally, the use of race and the identification of diversity and our response to it (Guidelines for Inclusion: Ensuring Access to Education for All, 2005; Artiles and Kozleski, 2007 and Korsgaard, Larsen and Wiberg, 2018).
The analysis might show the way in which in the last fifteen years Disney-Pixar movies have incorporated topics like these onesand this is the main reason to see this type of texts as an appropriate vehicle to create learning opportunities for inclusive education. For this reason, the movies chosen, display issues such as; mobility, borders, the crossing and exchange of cultures, the encounter with the Other, race diversity and other physical differences, and more importantly, today’s reaction of society towards them. Martínez-Salanova (2002) claims that without cinema it is impossible to meet contemporary reality, but we always have to take into account that Disney presents its own Americanized reality.
The chosen study model is a theoretical approach with a conceptual character which consists in the analysis of several studies that concern Inclusive Education as an intrinsic method to use in the classroom in today’s global society. This study has dealt with several researchers in the field such as Roger Slee (2010), Julie Allan (2007), John Portelli and Patricia Koneeny (2018) and Morten Korsgaard, Vibe Larsen and Merete Wiberg (2018). Moreover, based on their ideas, this paper analyses the potential of two Disney-Pixar movies, Monsters Inc. (2003) and Tinker Bell and the Secret of the Wings (2012) in order to promote inclusive education in the Primary school classroom. The movies will be analyzed from a cultural perspective so as to explore the ways in which they deal with issues such as racial, national and cultural borders, the separation of the global and the local, the national and the transnational, the representation of migrants and the social recognition of these facts. This paper will use as a reference to analyze the films the works of Nussbaum (1997), Martínez-Salanova (2002), Deleyto (2003), and Cheu (2013) as primary sources to explore the relationship between inclusive education and cinema. It will also be used cultural theory about globalization, borders, inclusion and other cosmopolitan phenomena (Anzaldúa, (1999), Castells (2011) and Delanty (2009) among others). Textual analysis, together with social and cultural studies, will be used in order to explore the texts’ educational potential to develop inclusive education, so to analyze the discourses with moments of openness and fruitful encounters with the other.
As a conclusion, this communication looks at two 21st century Disney-Pixar films from an inclusive perspective in order to explore the possibilities of these texts to promote inclusive education in the Primary school. The intention of this research is to explore the possibilities of a type of commercial cinema and very popular among students of Education. The main objective is to maximize flows of knowledge in teachers and students and to develop social inclusion throw cinema as an artifact that is constantly present in our lives, and particularly, Disney-Pixar movies in the lives of Primary school children. It is a tool that could help them to understand other cultures and see difference as an opportunity. The analysis focuses its argument in the cultural aspects of inclusive education and uses specific inclusive values to discover the potential of the texts, developing an analysis of the movies in which it is discovered the real power of 21st Century Disney movies in inclusive terms. The results of this analysis display that there are some specific scenes of both movies that portray inclusive moments, moments of openness to the other and fruitful encounters with different cultures, races and ethnicities that help society to improve the way of life of the inhabitants. There is no register of studies that deal with Disney-Pixar animated films of the 21st century from an inclusive perspective that explores the ways in which some of these texts can be used in the primary education classroom in order to promote inclusive education, so this remarks the importance of a studio like this one.
Anzaldúa, G.  1999.Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza. San Francisco, CA: Aunt Lute Books. Allan, J. 2007. Rethinking inclusive education: The philosophers of difference in practice (5). Springer Science&Business Media. Artiles, A. J. and Kozleski, E. B. 2007. “Beyond convictions: Interrogating culture, history, and power in inclusive education”. Journal of Language Arts. 84(4): 351-358. Beach, D. 2017. "International Trends and Developments in the Ethnography of Education." ActaPaedagogicaVilnensia 39.39: 15-30. Castells, M. 2011. The rise of the network society: The information age: Economy, society, and culture. Vol. 1.Oxford: Blackwell. Cheu, J. 2013. Diversity in Disney films: Critical Essays on race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality and disability. Jefferson, NC: Macfarland&Company. Delanty, G. 2006. “The Cosmopolitan Imagination: Critical Cosmopolitanism and Social Theory.” The British Journal of Sociology 57 (1): 25–47. Deleyto, C. 2003. Ángeles y Demonios. Representación e Ideología en el cine. Barcelona: Paidós. Davis, A. 2006. Good Girls and Wicked Witches: Women in Disney’s Feature Animation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Giroux, H. 1999. Disney and the end of innocence: The mouse that roared. New York. Hastings, W. 1993. “Moral Simplification in Disney's The Little Mermaid”. The Lion and the Unicorn, 17(1), 83-92. Korsgaard, M., Larsen, V., and Wiberg, M. 2018. “Thinking and researching inclusive education without a banister–visiting, listening and tact as a foundation for collective research on inclusive education”. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1-17. Liasidou, A. 2012. Inclusive education, politics and policymaking. Bloomsbury Publishing. Martínez-Salanova, E. 2002. “El cine, otra ventana al mundo”. Comunicar: Revista Científica de Comunicación y Educación. 77-83. Meinel, D. 2016. Pixar’s America: The Re-Animation of American Myths and Symbols. Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan. Nussbaum, M. 1997. Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Liberal Education. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Rizvi, F. 2009. “Towards cosmopolitan learning”. Discourse: Studies in the cultural politics of education, 30 (3), 253-268. Slee, R. 2010. "Social justice and the changing directions in educational research: the case of inclusive education". Internal Journal of Inclusive Education. 167-177. UNESCO. 2005. Guidelines for inclusion: Ensuring access to education for all. Unesco. Vigo, B. and Beach, D. 2017. Creative teaching practices: Beyond a superficial experience for all. Paper presented in “Ethnographic Explorations of the Arts and the Education” (University of Oporto) Vigo, B. and Dieste, B. 2017. Contradicciones en la educación inclusiva a través de un estudio multiescalar. No. ART-2017-100549.
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