04 SES 16 D, Positive Education for Disadvantaged Students around the Globe
A theoretical framework – the “school-related engine model of well-being” (Harzer, Weber, & Huebner, 2017) will be introduced as a useful tool to identify aspects relevant to support and promote underprivileged students. This model is based on an approach by Jayawickreme, Forgeard, and Seligman (2012) that distinguishes inputs, processes, and outcomes of human well-being broadly construed. (1) Inputs are resources that enable well-being, and can be represented as exogenous factors (e.g., family income, access to education, neighborhood), and as endogenous factors (e.g., individuals’ personality like character strengths, hope, neuroticism). (2) Processes include internal states or mechanisms that influence well-being (e.g., mood, emotions, cognitions). (3) Such processes, in turn, lead individuals to outcomes that reflect the attainment of well-being (e.g., meaningful activities, positive accomplishments) (cf. Jayawickreme et al., 2012). Harzer et al. (2017) adapted this approach and presented a school-related engine model of well-being that (1) focuses on inputs (e.g., perseverance, leadership), processes (e.g., satisfaction, self-efficacy beliefs), and outcomes (e.g., achievement, engagement) on both teacher level and student level, (2) highlights that all inputs, processes, and outcomes are reciprocally related within the levels, and (3) emphasizes possible interactions between teacher level and student level. An overview of relevant results will be presented highlighting the meaningful interplay between inputs, processes, and outcomes. For example, disadvantageous exogenous inputs like poverty have a negative impact on outcomes like academic achievement (McLoyd, 1998). Research also showed that poverty is negatively associated with processes like academic self-esteem and liking for school as well as positively related to intrinsic academic motivation (Battistich, Solomon, Kim, Watson, & Schaps, 1995). The discussion will give a special emphasis on the relevance of this model for underprivileged students as well as theoretical and practical implications. For example, aspects like student-teacher relationship (as exogenous input), character strengths (as endogenous inputs), and self-efficacy (as process) can be fostered in order to promote underprivileged students’ school satisfaction and academic achievement.
Battistich, V., Solomon, D., Kim, D., Watson, M., & Schaps, E. (1995). Schools as communities, poverty levels of student populations, and students' attitudes, motives, and performance: A multilevel analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 32, 627-658. doi:10.3102/00028312032003627 Harzer, C., Weber, M., & Huebner, E. S. (2017). School as a positive learning and working environment. In S. J. Lopez, & C. R. Snyder, The Oxford handbook of positive psychology (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199396511.013.45 Jayawickreme, E., Forgeard, M. J. C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2012). The engine of well- being. Review of General Psychology, 16, 327-342. doi:10.1037/a0027990 McLoyd, V. C. (1998). Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development. American Psychologist, 53, 185-204. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.53.2.185
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