01 SES 03 C, Distributed Leadership and Schools as Learning Organizations – Conceptual Issues in Crossing National Boundaries While Linking Practice to Theory
In the business and organizational studies literature, Japan provides many example of innovations in distribution of leadership (Nonaka, Sasaki, & Ahmed, 2003; Storey, Edwards, & Sisson, 1997), yet little has been written about different forms of leadership in Japanese education. Japanese teachers progress through a distinct set of highly institutionalized roles, described in this paper, and acquire specific sets of technical knowledge. While this has some superficial similarities with the ideal of teacher leaders developing and integrating multiple identities over time that (Lieberman & Friedrich, 2010): 24-31, pointed out, teacher leaders in Japan in these roles essentially take on administrative roles and evaluation functions – one of the barriers noted in (Lindahl, 2008). This means that true distributed leadership in Japan is constrained by highly institutionalized (and hierarchical) teacher work roles that while allowing teachers to attain significant career mobility over time (Akiba, Chiu, Shimizu, & Liang, 2012), and limits the organizations’ ability to innovate with alternative forms of leadership. Historically, Japanese teachers took on significant leadership roles, especially in the area of curriculum development (Doig & Groves, 2011) and student counseling (LeTendre, 1995). (Ikoma, 2017) notes a long-term collaborative culture of professional growth, but others have argued that this culture is now undermined by threats to teacher professional status (Gordon, 2005), increasing government control of teacher licensing (Akiba, 2013) and increasing social inequality (Kariya, 2012). Overtime, the national government has also asserted more control over the certification of teachers, and established a stronger, centralized system that tends to re-enforce hierarchy (Muta, 2000). This paper analyzes how the nature of teachers work in Japanese schools traditionally provided a form of distributed leadership, and critically analyzes how, given long-term changes, the ability of schools to implement important aspects of distributed leadership may be limited. In conclusion, a brief review of major policy initiates in teacher certification and school governance being planned for 2020, will have significant implications for the ability of schools to implementat of distributed leadership.
Akiba, M. (2013). Teacher License Renewal Policy in Japan. In M. Akiba (Ed.), Teacher Reforms around the World. Akiba, M., Chiu, Y.-L., Shimizu, K., & Liang, G. (2012). Teacher salary and national achievement. International Journal of Educational Research. Doig, B., & Groves, S. (2011). Japanese Lesson Study. Mathematics Teacher Education and Develeopment, 12(1), 77-93. Gordon, J. (2005). The Crumbling Pedestal. Journal of Teacher Education, 56(5), 459-470. Ikoma, S. (2017). Individual Excellence vs. Collaborative Culture. In M. Akiba & G. LeTendre (Eds.), International Handbook of Teacher Quality and Policy. Kariya, T. (2012). Education Refrorm and Social Class in Japan. New York: Routledge. LeTendre, G. K. (1995). Disruption and reconnection. Educational Policy. Lieberman, A., & Friedrich, L. (2010). How Teachers Become Leaders. New York: Teachers College Press. Lindahl, R. (2008). Shared Leadership: Can it Work in Schools. The Educational Forum(72), 298-307. Muta, H. (2000). Deregulation and decentralization of education in Japan. Journal of Educational Administration, 38(5), 455-467. Nonaka, I., Sasaki, K., & Ahmed, M. (2003). Continuous Innovation in Japan. In L. Shavinina (Ed.), The International Handbook on Innovation. Storey, J., Edwards, P., & Sisson, K. (1997). Managers in the Making: Careers, Development and Control in Corporate Britain and Japan. London: Sage.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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