02 SES 08 A, Youth With Special Needs and at Risk
21st century skills are framed as an overarching concept in education policies in many OECD countries, aiming to grasp the future challenges education is faced with. Shortly, 21st century skills can be defined as skills and knowledge that can be transferred or applied into new situations, including both cognitive and non-cognitive skills. The societies are facing unprecedented challenges – social, economic and environmental – driven by accelerating globalization and technological innovations. At the same time, those forces are providing us with myriad new opportunities for human advancement. The rapid changes in i.e. economy and labor markets challenges the educational system at all levels, and especially the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values young people acquire through education (OECD, 2018; Pellegrino & Hilton, 2012). In the Norwegian context, there is an ongoing revision process of the curricula (“Fagfornyelsen”), including the VET curricula, which reflects these challenges (The Norwegian Directorate for Education (2018). Students shall be provided with relevant vocational education, which is aiming to develop critical thinking and reflection, transferable knowledge and skills, and be provided with learning contexts promoting deep learning. Pellegrino and Hilton (2012) define “deep learning” as problem solving and transfer of knowledge and skills into new situations. In order to develop 21st century skills, educational institutions should promote learning environments that supports and motivates the students, enhancing cognitive and meta-cognitive skills (e.g. critical thinking, creative thinking, learning to learn and self-regulation), social and emotional skills and practical and physical skills (OECD, 2018).
Simultaneously, there has been a growing interest in pedagogy in self-regulation as a trait related to motivation and assessment for learning (Smith, Gamlem, Sandal & Engelsen, 2016). Self-regulation is related to how the learner sets goals and try to monitor, regulate, and control cognition, motivation, and behavior in order to reach their goals (Andrade, 2010). Self-regulated learning takes place when an individual is a meta-cognitively, motivationally, and behaviorally active participant in his or her own learning (Zimmerman, 2000). In the curricula revision in Norway, these concepts are related to the concepts of assessment for learning (Gamlem & Smith, 2013), focusing on students` self-assessment as a tool for enhancing self-regulation.
With this as a background, this pilot study investigates how these concepts are interpreted and implemented in VET in Norway. The research question is How can the concepts 21st century skills and self-regulation be interpreted and contextualized in VET?
A pilot study was accomplished by three qualitative focus group interviews (Liamputtong, 2011) with VET teachers (N=8). The focus groups consisted of VET teachers from three upper secondary schools, vocational programs (health care, building and construction and technical and industrial production) and were recruited during a continuing education course for VET teachers in assessment for learning. The focus group interviews were structured by themes and statements about 21st century skills, self-regulation and assessment for learning contextualized in VET, building on the concepts in literature (Zimmermann, 2000; Hattie & Timperley, 2007; Andrade, 2010; Jossberger et al., 2010; Wiliam, 2011). The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed, using Nvivo as a tool (QSR International). The initial coding of the transcripts made basis for meaning condensation and categories (Kvale & Brinkmann, 2009). The initial analysis and findings will establish a basis for a second study.
The preliminary findings show that the VET teachers in this pilot study do not use the concept self-regulation or 21st century skills when they describe their practice in classrooms and workshops. They are providing the VET students with formative feedback during work tasks and learning processes and express a clear understanding of the concept assessment for learning as a mirror of their vocational learning approaches and teaching methods. They teach the VET students how to assess their own learning processes and achievements. Self-assessment stimulates students` reflections and help them to reflect upon their learning and mistakes and stimulate problem-solving. In addition, self-assessment is a vocational skill and competence needed as a skilled worker at workplaces, i.e. for evaluate work tasks according to quality guidelines and standards. The VET teachers also relate self-assessment to key competencies and vocational values and attitudes towards the work and profession, - as a socialization process into a vocational profession. However, in discussing 21st century skills, the VET teachers are vague in their reflections of their practice and how to realize the aims in the curricula related to 21st century skills. They are not familiar with the abstract concepts related to 21st century skills in the curricula, although their stories from their teaching practice show examples of implementation of such skills. The analysis will be elaborated further in order to make a conceptual framework for further studies and research design.
Andrade, H. L. (2010). Students as the definitive source of formative assessment: Academic self-assessment and the self-regulation of learning. In H. Andrade & G. J. Cizek (Eds.), Handbook of formative assessment (pp. 90–105). New York, NY: Routledge Gamlem, S.M. & Smith, K. (2013). Students’ perceptions of classroom feedback. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 20(2). Hattie, J. & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81–112. Jossberger, H., Brand‐Gruwel, S., Boshuizen, H. & van de Wiel, M. (2010) The challenge of self‐directed and self‐regulated learning in vocational education: a theoretical analysis and synthesis of requirements, Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 62(4), 415-440. Kvale, S. & Brinkmann, S. (2009). Interview. Introduktion til et håndværk. 2. udgave. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) København: Hans Reitzels Forlag. Liamputtong, P. (2011). Focus Group Methodology. Principles and Practice. London: Sage Publications. OECD (2018). The future of education and skills. Education 2030. http://www.oecd.org/education/2030/E2030%20Position%20Paper%20(05.04.2018).pdf. Retrieved 26.02.2019. Pellegrino, J.W. & Hilton, M. L. (2012). Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century. Washington D.C.: The National Academies Press. QSR International. WHAT IS NVIVO? Software that supports qualitative and mixed methods research. http://www.qsrinternational.com/nvivo/what-is-nvivo. Retrieved 19.02.2019 Smith, K., Gamlem, S.M., Sandal, A.K. & Engelsen, K.S. (2016). Educating for the future: A conceptual framework of responsive pedagogy. Cogent Education, 3(1), 1-12. The Norwegian Directorate for Education (2018). Fagfornylelsen. https://www.udir.no/laring-og-trivsel/lareplanverket/fagfornyelsen/. Retrieved 25.02.2019. Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich & M. Zeider (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation. New York: Academic Wiliam, D. (2011). What is assessment for learning? Studies in Educational Evaluation, 37(1), 3-14.
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.