01 SES 10 B, Habitus, Culture, and Creativity in Reflection
Equal access to quality education is one of the EEA countries’, Great Britain’s and Swiss' central goals. This equal access is a difficult target to reach. The school is mainly a middle-class and upper-class institution and is therefore largely shaped by these. Teachers have different habitus and thus attitudes, stances and practices, which have an impact on their teaching. Many everyday actions that appear natural are actually culturally constructed. However, school students come to school with different requirements. They have different capital resources, come from different social classes (Leimstättner, 2011) with different gender, and their communities have different backgrounds. The different habitus of the teachers result in a partly unconscious and different treatment of different students with different characteristics and illustrates the tensions that exist between the broad social, political and economic demands placed on education systems and the realities of daily engagement. The diversity of the student body is continuously increasing and requires the teachers to reflect so that they can analyse on and end or decrease their different treatment of the diverse student body.
With the help of his concept of habitus, Bourdieu extends the concept of capital and makes it compatible for an examination of the social structure and the life plans (El-Mafaalani, & Wirtz, 2011). Fröhlich and Rehbein describe habitus as a system of dispositions, which is responsible for the regularity and appropriateness of action. These dispositions are acquired over the course of a lifetime. The so-called primary experiences show the constraints and requirements of the social environment. This is socialization or habitualization: experiencing positive experiences means acting similarly in similar situations. By repeating these actions, the behaviour becomes habitual, a pattern develops (Fröhlich, & Rehbein, 2009). The habitus is subject to constant change, the underlying reason is that it is a result of the previous life of his person. (Schwingel, 1995). Bourdieu's concept of "social space" focuses on an analysis of the structure and volumes of capital. Every person in a society holds a certain position in this structure. This position is associated with the individual attitudes and lifestyles and thus also with attitudes, stances and practices (see El-Mafaalani, & Wirtz, 2011).
In 15 interviews based on the qualitative documentary method various attitudes, stances, practices and habitus of teachers were examined and associated with their reflective practice as professional teachers. In research, particular attention was paid to the dimensions of gender and migration.
I try to create an intersubjectivity through the detailed presentation of the respective scientists who have designed different reflection concepts, their motives and their historical time, so that my qualitative research of the entire dissertation can be understood at any time. This means that the reader can understand why different normative reflection concepts have been developed from which motives and why I use them for my operationalization of reflection.
The concepts of reflective practitioners and action research have played a major role in the process of operationalization. One reason for this lies in the fact that the teachers interviewed were or are participants in the university courses PFL and ProFiL in Austria. The aim of these courses is the reflective practitioner, who individually and with other teachers strives to continuously improve the quality of teaching and the school as well as its framework conditions (Rauch, Zehetmeier, & Posch, 2019). This examination is also an evaluation of the two university courses. The focus here is on differences in reflection behaviour in relation to the habitus and which conclusions could be drawn for the courses.
The documentary method works with biographical or guide-based interviews. These are "[...] narratively founded, i.e. narrative-generating, and aim at the articulation of experiences and orientations by the interviewee.” (Nohl, 2012a) These experiences and orientations of people can be reconstructed with the documentary method. According to Karl Mannheim, there are two different levels of meaning: 1. The immanent meaning: This is the literal, explicit meaning of descriptions. A distinction is also made here between the subjectively intended intentional sense of expression and the object sense. 2. The “document sense” (Mannheim, 1980; Nohl, 2012b): The reported experience is reconstructed as a document of orientation, this document sense organizes and structures this described experience. The document sense indicates the way the description was created, the “modus operandi” (Bohnsack, 2013; Nohl, 2012b). The focus is on the question of how the text and the plot in this text are structured, how is the topic dealt with, which “orientation framework” (Gaffer, & Liell, 2013; Nohl, 2012b) is used to work on a problem. In the analysis, not only “what”, but also “how” should be examined and worked out (Nohl, 2012b). According to Nohl, this leads to a double interpretation of the statements of an interview: the formulating and the reflective interpretation: The formulating interpretation rephrases and summarizes the thematic content from the perspective of the interpreter. The reflective interpretation, on the other hand, reconstructs the orientation framework in which a topic or problem is dealt with (Nohl, 2012b). In the further course of the analysis there follows a (Nohl, 2012b) "sequential analytic comparative analysis" (Nohl, 2012b). "The determination of the documentary meaning, the mode of processing or the (orientation) framework is then made possible by the reconstruction of the implicit regularity that structures these successive narrative sections." (Nohl, 2012b). In the further and final step, type formation follows in the documentary method. The orientation frameworks elaborated in the sequential analytic comparative analysis are examined to see whether they can also be found in other cases. This framework can be detached from the individual case and presented as a type. Two steps are carried out here: 1. The meaning-genetic type formation (Nohl, 2012b) and the sociogenetic type formation (Nohl, 2012b). Against the background of the presented theory, the outcomes are presented, discussed and reflected in paper presentation.
A connection between habitus and reflection in teachers could be assumed. Teachers from better educated strata have no problem to consult their superiors or other teachers if a problem arises or they need help. Teachers who have grown up in less educational environments act differently. The teachers from higher social classes have more confidence in dealing with other teachers or their superiors, since they are already used to the language and the way they interact with them through their habitus. This also makes it easier for them to reflect through exchange. They also pursue exchange in a more targeted manner in terms of reflection or professionalization. These teachers deliberately pursue a confrontation of different perspectives (Feldmann et al., 2018) in the sense of action research. They appear to possess in their habitus the main aim of action research as knowledge as a goal of reflection and development as a goal of activity or action (Feldmann et al., 2018). What it in fact shows that the school is mainly a middle- and upper-class institution and is thus also predominantly shaped by these (Leimstättner, 2011). Teachers from these classes seem as if they had been made for this institution. The reflective practice that they have in their habitus is precisely the reflective practice that promises the most success as a teacher in school and in their everyday professional life. This is because the institution school is shaped by these classes. In relation to gender stereotypes, no connection could be established between the ability to reflect, habitus and the treatment of students. It is noticeable that many teachers outside of the larger cities have practically no experience with pupils with a migrational background. Teachers from big cities sometimes experience the opposite.
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