01 SES 12 B, Evidence Based School Practice as an Area of Tension – Approaches and Ideas to Close the Gap Between Practice and Research
Research findings suggested that data feedback can be regarded as a catalyst for instructional improvement (Hattie & Timperley, 2007; Helmke & Helmke, 2015). Thus, Helmke et al. (2010) developed EMU (unterrichtsdiagnostik.info), a free program for teachers to reflect and improve their own instruction using student and colleague feedback. However, the use of feedback does not always ensure improvement. Meta-analyses of the effect of feedback interventions have shown negative effects in more than one-third of the studies (Kluger & DeNisi, 1998). To reduce the risk of having a negative effect, more must be known about the mechanisms of the improvement process of classroom instruction induced by feedback. Helmke (2004) introduced a sequence model (information – reception – reflection – action – evaluation), which describes the mental processes but does not describe how they are accomplished. To explain success, an “inner theory” is needed, which “describes the mechanisms underlying the processes” (Lewis, 2011, p. 154). Such a theory for the process of instructional improvement is still lacking (Terhart, 2015). Therefore, the Swiss National Science Foundation funded a study (duration: 02.2020–07.2021) which aims at refining Helmke’s model by merging it with the feedback intervention theory (Kluger & DeNisi, 1998) and the goal-setting theory (Locke & Latham, 2002). These theories shed light on the mechanisms behind the effect of feedback interventions, especially the mechanisms of the goals’ effect. The main hypotheses are: (1) goal commitment predicts action and goal achievement, (2) task-related goals (vs. self-related goals), and (3) simple tasks (vs. complex tasks) are more likely to be accomplished. To gain empirical data, 50 primary and secondary school teachers in Switzerland were recruited. Their task is to implement EMU with a colleague and students to improve their own teaching. The implementation should involve setting a goal, choosing relevant items, collecting student and colleague feedback data, planning and implementing changes with the colleague, and collecting feedback data gain after 8 weeks. After the second data collection, structured interviews with all teachers are conducted to gain information on the goals and the process. Feedback data and data from the interview study will be analysed using graphical lasso correlation network (Friedman et al.,2014) and lasso regression (Friedman et al., 2010) to deal with the small sample size. Currently, data analysis is in progress. The refined theoretical model and study results will be presented at the conference. They will be considered to further develop the EMU program.
Friedman, J., Hastie, T., & Tibshirani, R. (2010). Regularization Paths for Generalized Linear Models via Coordinate Descent. Journal of Statistical Software,33(1),pp.1–22. Friedman, J., Hastie, T., & Tibshirani, R. (2014). glasso: Graphical lasso-estimation of Gaussian graphical models. (R package version 1.8). Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of educational research, 77(1),pp.81–112. Helmke, A. (2004). Von der Evaluation zur Innovation: Pädagogische Nutzbarmachung von Vergleichsarbeiten in der Grundschule. SEMINAR,10(2),pp.90–112. Helmke, A., & Helmke, T. (2015). Unterrichtsdiagnostik als Ausgangspunkt für Unterrichtsentwicklung. In H.-G. Rolff, Handbuch Unterrichtsentwicklung(pp.242–257). Weinheim: Beltz. Helmke, A., Helmke, T., Lenske, L., Pham, G. H., Praetorius, A.-K., Schrader, F.-W. & Ade-Thurow, M. (2010). Studienbrief Unterrichtsdiagnostik – Evidenzbasierte Methoden der Unterrichtsdiagnostik (EMU). University of Koblenz-Landau. www.unterrichtsdiagnostik.info Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1998). Feedback interventions: Toward the understanding of a double-edged sword. Current directions in psychological science,7(3),pp.67–72. Lewis, C. (2011). Inner and Outer Theory in Human-Computer Interaction. In J. M. Carroll, Designing interaction (pp.154–161). New York: Cambridge University Press. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. American Psychologist, 57(9),pp.705–717 Terhart, E. (2015). Theorie der Unterrichtsentwicklung: Inspektion einer Leerstelle. In H.-G. Rolff, Handbuch Unterrichtsentwicklung (pp.62–76). Weinheim: Beltz.
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