04 SES 17 B, Quality Criteria for Inclusive Learning and Teaching Materials. International Comparative Reflections
The Italian school system has a long tradition of inclusive education, which finds its foundations in its Constitution and then further at the legislative level since the 1970s with the first experiences of integration of students with disabilities in regular schools. Since then, legislation has developed to guarantee students with disabilities, learning disorders and other special educational needs the right to individualisation and personalization. The long experience of "Integrazione Scolastica" has also produced some benefits on teachers' attitudes (Balboni & Pedrabissi, 2000) and the presence of students with disabilities in Italian schools seems to have led to some positive developments for all students in terms of teaching methodology (Ianes, Demo & Zambotti, 2014). The inclusion in the School for All has also had a strong impact on people with disabilities. (Canevaro, D'Alonzo, & Ianes 2009). The contribution aims to present the main developments in Italian school inclusion, highlighting both the positive results and the ongoing challenges (such as the challenges brought by the Covid-19 pandemic and the consequent distance learning), especially those that might be of interest for an international research comparison. In particular, we intend to expose the following relevant issues such as the persistent influence of a medical-individual model of disability on school practices, the mechanisms and opportunities for additional support and resources for inclusion and consequently their role in improving the quality of inclusion (Ianes, Demo, Dell’Anna, 2020) as well as the current discussion of the impact of the covid-19 pandemic on inclusive education and schooling in times of distance learning (Vicari & Di Vara, 2021).
Balboni, G., & Pedrabissi, L. (2000). Attitudes of Italian teachers and parents toward school inclusion of students with mental retardation. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 35(2), 148–159. Canevaro, A., D’Alonzo, L., Ianes, D., & Caldin, R. (2011). L’integrazione scolastica nella percezione degli insegnanti. Trento: Erickson Canevaro, A., D’Alonzo, L., & Ianes, D. (Eds.) (2009). L’integrazione scolastica di alunni con disabilità dal 1977 al 2007. Risultati di una ricerca attraverso lo sguardo delle persone con disabilità e delle loro famiglie. Bolzano: Bozen-Bolzano University Press. Ianes, D., Demo, H., & Zambotti, F. (2014). Integration in Italian schools: teachers’ perceptions regarding day-to-day practice and its effectiveness. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 18(6), 626–653. https ://doi.org/10.1080/13603 116.2013.80203 0. Ianes, D., Demo, H. & Silvia Dell’Anna (2020). Inclusive education in Italy: Historical steps, positive developments, and challenges. pp. 249-263. Springer Vicari, S. & Di Vara, S. (2021). Bambini, adolescenti e Covid -19. L’impatto della pandemia dal punto di vista emotivo, psicologico e scolastico. Trento: Erickson.
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