30 ONLINE 24 B, Global citizenship education and ESE
MeetingID: 821 8726 7756 Code: FQu21F
Our globalizing world and the challenges humanity faces make it essential for educators to develop the necessary global competencies. The Hungarian Association of NGOs for Development and Humanitarian Aid (HAND) is an umbrella organization for non-governmental organizations working in the field of international development, humanitarian aid, and education for sustainability and global responsibility. The Association and its member organizations have been working for nearly 20 years to promote global content and attitudes in all formal, non-formal, and informal learning environments. According to the 4.7 point of the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the UN member states in 2015, the leaders of the countries of the world have committed themselves to create the conditions in education by 2030 to: " ensure all learners acquire knowledge and skills needed to promote … global citizenship” (UN 2015). The presented study focuses on global education (also known as global citizenship education) among the educational approaches listed in the UN Objective, and examines domestic teacher education primarily in this context, as global education requires educators with knowledge and attitudes of global relevance. However, the question is whether prospective teachers could prepare for this task during their university training. The HAND Association initiated research to answer this question, which examined qualitatively and quantitatively which factors, according to the opinions of the stakeholders, help and hinder the implementation of global education in Hungarian teacher education. The Association's research project was carried out in cooperation with civil society partners in the Visegrad countries (Poland, Slovakia, Czech Republic and Hungary), with the same focus and methodological research in these countries. In Hungary, HAND worked with four universities (Eötvös Loránd University, University of Pécs, University of Debrecen and University of Nyíregyháza) to design and implement the research. Other international processes have also focused on the issue of global education. In addition to education for sustainability, UNESCO also organizes professional forums, publishes background materials, aids and monitoring reports on the emergence of global citizenship education in different levels of education, and two of the indicators in SDG 4.7 examine this question. One is the extent to which education for global responsibility and sustainability has been integrated into national education policies, curricula, teacher training and student assessment, and the other is the extent to which students themselves have an understanding of global and sustainability issues. In Hungary, UNESCO processes are also of particular importance because Hungary is among the twelve countries where UNESCO, together with national governments, has launched stakeholder consultation processes on education for sustainability. In the framework of the PISA surveys, OECD also examined the so-called global competencies (OECD 2020) and in Europe, the North-South Center of the Council of Europe is the custodian of global education. Since the Maastricht Declaration adopted by the Council Member States in 2002, the Center, in cooperation with Member State governments and responsible institutions, has promoted global education by publishing background and teaching aids, providing training opportunities and coordinating policy cooperation and information flows between European and non-European stakeholders. In 2022, on the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the Maastricht Declaration, the Council of Europe plans to renew it, and an international consultation process has also been launched. Our research would be a contribution to these international processes.
The research contained three research strands. A document analysis was carried out on ministerial decrees on training and output requirements of Hungarian teacher education to identify to what extent the policy environment reflects the global considerations. The second strand was a quantitative study partly based on the research of Hain - Nguyen Luu in 2012. It also included some new questions. One goal of the research was to compare the results of the two studies to get an overall picture of the development of the content emphases of global education [DNLLA1] [DNLLA1]in Hungarian teacher education in the perspective of almost ten years. From the 2012 research, we repeated a questionnaire survey assessing the experiences of student teachers, re-querying the questions of the previously used questionnaire, partially updating and supplementing them. The questionnaire examined how informed students perceived themselves about certain global topics, how interesting and important these issues are to them, and how often they encounter them in their daily lives and in teacher education. Participation in the survey was voluntary and anonymous. The online questionnaires were distributed to students with the help of lecturers from the participating universities, and a total of 305 valid responses were received from the four universities. Thirdly participatory system mapping method was applied to collect information about stakeholders’ (university lecturers, students, representatives of non-governmental organizations) views on the contents and dimensions of global education and the methodologies suitable for improving teachers training for global education in Hungary.] In the research, three groups of 3-6 people, among them two groups of experts and one group of students for a total of 14 people were invited to jointly prepare mind maps and causal diagrams on certain aspects of global education in Hungarian teacher training. As a result, three detailed mind maps and causal diagrams describe the current situation of global education in the Hungarian higher education system.
The analysis of the ministerial decrees defining the training and output requirements for teacher education showed that the contents, aspects, competencies related to global education or sustainability are present in the descriptions of qualification requirements of all majors but to a very variable extent and in any case, it does not appear as horizontal principles or content. Some aspects, such as the issue of gender equality and women's rights to contraception, are almost completely missing from the requirements. The questionnaire survey revealed that the self-assessment of the respondents' overall self-perceived awareness of global issues compared to the 2012 data has not changed greatly . The awareness about some particular issues (pandemics, migration, critical use of media) increased while in other cases (environmental awareness, child mortality, child labour, coexistence of different cultures, work and study abroad) decreased. The majority of students meet only occasionally with global issues during their training and school practice. In terms of methodologies, students are generally familiar with pedagogical methods that have been shown to be effective in global education for a long time (like project work), but some effective approaches (like action research and life-cycle analysis) are less well known among them. The three causal diagrams resulting from the participatory system mapping identified a number of factors as possible drivers of global education and central elements of the system which are influenced by many factors and so could be a suitable point to initiate changes. One of the most central elements of the systems was motivation. Although only the diagram of the student group dealt with the motivation of the students and indicated factors that are important for the students that may even contribute to the decision making processes of universities, but the charts did not depict policy-making as a factor that could be easily influenced.
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