16 SES 08 B, Social Media and Learning
Parallel Paper Session
This article describes a study that aims to understand and analyse e-moderation and online environment collaboration. As analysis object we took a discussion forum in the PROEDI social network, titled “Wiki and Blog as educational tools” and as an analysis instrument a grid that relied in the conceptual framework proposed by Murphy (2004). In the model's logic, interaction and collaboration are triggering elements for the development of an enabling climate to the joint construction of knowledge. These elements represent a process continuously evolving developed through six phases: i) social presence; ii) individual perspective articulation; iii) reception; iv) Co-construction of shared perspectives and meanings; v) construction of shared objectives and purposes and vi) production of shared artefacts.
The process begins in a simple and spontaneous interaction, defined by Schrage (1995) as “purposive relationship” that may evolve until its final phase, the artefact production. In a way, we might say that the primacy of these relationships is social presence, a term defined by Garrison, Anderson and Archer (2000), and also Anderson, (2004), as an essential element so that, in an online environment, particularly in virtual communities, a receptive environment, promoting multiple interactions, might be established.
In the second stage, the members of the community begin to express their ideas. Even though at this point there is no interaction, the author points out that it is of fundamental importance because it will be a starting point so that in the next phase (individual perspective articulation), people may analyse and consider about colleague contributions. It is also in this phase that the reception process begins, where respect for others’ ideas emerges. We think that it is an important strategy to prepare the members to the next phase, where “changing and redefining of individual perspectives will be needed, to work together in building meanings after” (Merinhos, 2006, p.165).
In the next phase - “Construction of shared perspectives and meanings” - the interactions intensify and the shared repertoire takes on a more solid configuration. The community members, through information sharing, establish connections with previous knowledge and store new information in their mental structures (Ausubel, Novak & Hanesian, 1980). In a way, at this phase, we can perceive the group more entangled in the achieving of common objectives (Lisbôa, 2010), because, as Murphy (2004) states: “when individuals reach a stage at which they share goals, a sense of common purpose emerges. It is at this point that individuals work together and begin to move in unison towards a common direction” (p.423). And, from that moment, they go not only from creating knowledge but, and mainly, to share objectives and purposes that aim for the development and progress of the group, as specified in the next phase, known as “building shared goals an purposes”. The apex of the model is meant to produce artefacts as a result of joint collaboration.
Anderson, T.(2004) Teaching in an Online Learning Context. In: Terry Anderson,&, Fathi Elloumi (Editores). Theory and Practice of Online Learning (2004). Canadá: Athabasca University. Cde.athabascau.ca/online _book. Available at: http://cde.athabascau.ca/online_book/contents.html. Consulted the: 20/08/09. Ausubel, D.P.; Novak, J. D.; Hanesian, H.(1980). Psicologia Educacional. Rio de Janeiro: Interamericana. Bardin, L. (2004). Análise de Conteúdo (3ª ed.). Lisboa: Edições 70. Garrison, D. R.; Anderson, T.; Archer, W. (2000). Critical Inquiry in a Text-Based Environment: Computer Conferencing in Higher Education. University of Alberta. Edmonton, Canada. p. 1 -34. Available at: http://auspace.athabascau.ca:8080/dspace/bitstream/2149/739/1/critical_inquiry_in_a_text.pdf. Consulted the: 30/08/09. Lisbôa, E. S.; Coutinho, C. P. (2010). Comunidades da Rede Social Orkut que versam sobre o Eixo Temático Educação, Formação e Tecnologia: Um Estudo Exploratório. In: I Encontro Internacional de TIC e Educação- ticEDUCA2010. Lisboa: Instituto de Educação - universidade de Lisboa, 2010. p. 631-636. McMillan, J.; Schumaker, S. (1997). Research in Education: evidence-based inquiry. 6ª Ed. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Meirinhos, M. F. A. (2006). Professional development in distance learning collaborative environments: a case study in in-servce training of teachers. Doctoral Disseration (unpublished). Braga: Universidade do Minho Murphy, E. (2004). Recognising and promoting collaboration in an online asynchronous discussion. In: British Journal of Educational Technology. Vol 35. No 4 .pp.421–431. Available at: http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~emurphy/bjet_401.pdf. Consulted the: 10.11.11 Schrage M. (1995) No more teams! Mastering the dynamics of creative collaboration. Doubleday: New York. Souza, F. N.; Costa, A. P.; Moreira, A.(2011), “Análise de Dados Qualitativos Suportada pelo Software webQDA”. Atas da VII Conferência Internacional de TIC na Educação: Perspetivas de Inovação (CHALLENGES2011), pp. 49-56, Braga, 12 e 13 de Maio, (CD-ROM, ISBN: 978-972-98456-9-7). Available at: http://www.webqda.com/flash_content/artigoChallanges2011.pdf. Consulted the: 01.12.11
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