16 SES 10 A, Self-regulated Learning in Technology Enhanced Learning Environments II
Symposium, Part 2
Self-Regulated Learning in Technology Enhanced Learning Environments
Part 2 of 3: The Importance of Feedback in Technology Enhanced Self-Regulated Learning
There are a number of models that have been developed on self-regulated learning. Probably the best know model is that of Zimmerman who assumes that the process of self-regulated learning can be divided into three stages: (1) planning a learning activity, (2) executing and monitoring the learning activity and (3) evaluating the learning outcome. Although this is a rather simple model and actual learning processes are probably much more complex, it does provide for a basis from which may venture to explore the process of self-regulated learning more in depth. In this part of our symposium, we would like to focus on the role of feedback in self-regulated learning.
While planning the learning activity, the student will not only have to assess the requirements of the task that lies ahead of him, but also his own resources that are available to him to cope with the task. Students’ self-concepts, the beliefs they hold concerning his abilities, their self-efficacy beliefs, all these would count as own resources, and although these were built up on the basis of the experiences the students had in similar learning situations, they were also formed by the feedback they received from their teachers and their peers. Feedback will also play an important role in the second stage of SRL: executing and monitoring the learning activity. Comments from teachers and peers might make students aware of alternative strategies to cope with the task and thus influence SRL. And even in the third stage, feedback is important. Feedback from teachers and peers might help students to evaluate their learning outcome from a different perspective.
As Tony Fisher and Colin Harrison from Nottingham University in the U.K. point out, recent survey carried out have uncovered student dissatisfaction with feedback received in higher education. They have therefore developed an online system for student activated feedback which allows students to trigger feedback from peers and staff. This system offers students the opportunity to deepen their knowledge and enhance their self-regulated learning.
The role of teacher feedback is also the theme of the contribution by Maureen Snow Andrade from Utah Valley University in the U.S. Based on theories of transactional distance and self-regulated learning, she has developed a model of self-regulated distance learning. In her empirical study, she investigated the role of teacher feedback in helping students in a distance course to benefit from the course components on self-regulated learning.
Scaffolding students’ learning activities is also way of providing them with feedback. Per Bergamin and Egon Werlen from the Swiss Distance University of Applied Science in Switzerland developed a module for collaborate scaffolding with multiple choice imbedded in an LMS to scaffold students’ learning activities by providing them with feedback. The authors will present the results of an empirical evaluation of the module.
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