09 SES 03 A, Findings from International Comparative Achievement Studies: Relationships in Reading Performance (I)
Parallel Paper Session
Finland was the best in Europe in the PISA 2009 reading test and third in the entire PISA sample of countries. Estonia was thirteenth among the 65 countries and fifth in Europe (OECD, 2010a). Estonia and Finland are neighbours; we belong to the same language group. What should we do to achieve results in PISA that are as good as Finland’s?
Jouni Välijärvi et al. (2007) and Jarkko Hautamäki et al. (2008) explain the Finnish success in terms of the high standing that education in general and the teaching profession in particular has in Finnish society and the egalitarian nature of the school system in Finland. For example, on average there are ten applicants per place for teacher training at Finnish universities, 97% of the variability in PISA results occurs within schools, there are free hot lunches for all students in school and so on.
Pasi Sahlberg (2011) compared Finnish education with education in the USA. He points out that Finnish teachers teach less, pupils study less and student achievement costs less than in the USA. Sahlberg recommends moving from standardisation to personalisation, from competition to collaboration, and from control to trust.
Comparing Finnish and Danish PISA results, Frans Ørsted Andersen (2010) found that Danish schools would benefit from the use of teacher assistants in lessons, from inclusive classroom practices, and free school meals for all pupils.
Motivation is one of the most important factors of success in learning. Basl (2011) studied interest in natural sciences careers in four European countries. He found that the impact of school on the future educational trajectories was strong in all countries studied, but the role of family was negligible. Kjærnsli and Lie (2011) also studied student preferences in science careers. They organised PISA 2006 countries into nine groups according to cognitive and affective measures. Finland and Estonia were in different groups.
PISA volumes (OECD, 2010a; OECD, 2010c; OECD, 2010d) include valuable information about the contribution of different variables in PISA test results. For example, a one-unit increase in ESCS relates to a 29-point increase in reading in Estonia and a 31-point increase in Finland (OECD, 2010b, Table II, 3. 2). The effects are studied in groups of PISA variables, for example, teacher-student relations, reading enjoyment and so on. Overall analysis of the most important variables is not given.
The aim of this study is to find the differences in the impact of the most important variables contributing to the PISA 2009 results in reading for Finland and Estonia. The ideas above serve as a starting point for identifying contributing factors. The hypothesis is that Estonia falls behind Finland in some important PISA variables.
Andersen, F. Ø., (2010). Danish and Finnish PISA results in a comparative, qualitative perspective: How can the stable and distinct differences between the Danish and Finnish PISA results be explained? Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 22(2), 159-175. Basl, J., (2011). Effect of School on Interest in Natural Sciences: A comparison of the Czech Republic, Germany, Finland, and Norway based on PISA 2006 Sciences: A comparison of the Czech Republic, Germany, Finland, and Norway based on PISA 2006. International Journal of Science Education, 33(1),145–157. Hautamäki, J., Harjunen, E., Hautamäki, A., Karjalainen, T., Kupiainen, S., Laaksonen, S., Lavonen, J., Pehkonen, E., Rantanen, P., Scheinin, P. (2008). PISA06 Finland. Analysis, reflections and explanations. Helsinki: Helsinki University Print. Kjærnsli, M., Lie, S., (2011). Students’ Preference for Science Careers: International comparisons based on PISA 2006. International Journal of Science Education, 33(1) 121–144. OECD (2010a). PISA 2009 Results: What Students Know and Can Do – Student Performance in Reading, Mathematics and Science (Volume I). http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264091450-en OECD (2010b). PISA 2009 Results: Overcoming Social Background – Equity in Learning Opportunities and Outcomes (Volume II). http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264091504-en OECD (2010c). PISA 2009 Results: Learning to Learn – Student Engagement, Strategies and Practices (Volume III). http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264083943-en OECD (2010d). PISA 2009 Results: What Makes a School Successful? – Resources, Policies and Practices (Volume IV). http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264091559-en The PISA International Database (2010). http://pisa2009.acer.edu.au/ Sahlberg, P. (2011). What can the United States learn from the educational system in Finland. Presentation in San Diego CA, 9 August 2011. http://www.pasisahlberg.com/downloads/FinnFest_2011_edu_seminar_keynote.pdf Välijärvi, J., Kupari, P., Linnakylä, P., Reinikainen, P., Sulkunen, S., Törnroos, J., Arffman, I. (2007). The Finnish success in PISA – and some reasons behind it 2 PISA 2003. http://ktl.jyu.fi/ktl/english/publications
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
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Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
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Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
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Network 17. Histories of Education
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Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
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Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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