08 SES 04, Schools, Physical Activity and Health: Does Age Matter?
Parallel Paper Session
Because physical activity is essential to the healthy development of children and adolescents and helps to prevent chronic disorders in later life (WHO 2008), preventive interventions should be initiated as early as possible in the preschool years (Nemet et al. 2012).
The results of different studies suggest that physical activity is determined by numerous complex and multi-dimensional biological, psychological, sociocultural and environmental correlates (Sallis et al. 2000, Biddle et al. 2007, Hinkley et al. 2008). Many studies focus on the influence of social background on health and physical activity. There is strong evidence that socially disadvantaged children and children of ethnic minorities have a significantly higher risk of developing obesity than the general population (Kersey et al. 2010). A systematic review by Hanson and Chen (2007) revealed a consistently negative association between socio-economic status and physical activity of children. In addition, children affected by poverty are less involved in physical activity and healthy nutrition, and children who are obese in their preschool years are more likely to remain obese as adolescents and adults (Nemet et al. 2012).
“Physical activity and social behaviour of preschool children – Factors influencing health resources within the context of preschool and family” is a research project supported by the Institute of Early Childhood Education and Development of Lower Saxony, Germany. The goal of the project is to determine the effects of the systematic promotion of physical activity in preschools on the physical activity, health resources and social behaviour of preschool children. Systematic promotion of physical activity can increase motivation for physical activity and reduce risk factors such as sedentariness. To date, there are only a few studies addressing the issue of physical activity programmes in preschools and their effects on the physical activity of the children (Nemet et al. 2011).
In this research project, factors strengthening health resources will be determined. Systematic promotion of physical activity in preschools can be a correlate of physical activity, and it is assumed that it can have positive effects on physical activity, motor skills, health resources and peer interactions of preschool children. Associations between parental determinants, systematic physical activity programmes in preschools, physical activity, health resources and peer interactions of preschool children will be investigated in the scope of this project. We will attempt to determine the extent to which both systematic promotion of physical activity in preschools and parental behaviour influence preschool children’s activity behaviour, health resources and peer interactions. The project aims to provide data contributing to the development of effective prevention programmes to promote physical activity in children. Its theoretical framework is based on the ecological systems theory of development described by Bronfenbrenner (1986), the biopsychosocial model of health (WHO 1986), and the social cognitive theory of Bandura (1986).
In charge of this project are Prof. Dr. Rolf Werning (Organisation 1), Prof. Dr. Ulla Walter (Organisation 2) and Prof. Dr. Michael Urban (Organisation 3). Research Assistants are Natalie Pape (Organisation 1), Elena Sterdt (Organisation 2) and Silke Kramer (Organisation 2).
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Biddle, S.J.; Atkin, A.; Pearson, N. (2007). Physical activity and children. Review 2: Correlates of physical activity in children: A review of quantitative systematic reviews. NICE Public Health Collaborating Centre – Physical activity. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1986). Recent Advances in Research on the Ecology of Human Development. In: Silbereisen, R.-K.; Eyferth, K.; Rudinger, G.: Development as Action in Context – Problem Behaviour and Normal Youth Development. Berlin: Springer, 287–310. Hammersley, M.; Atkinson, P. (1995). Ethnography. Principles in practice. London: Routledge. Hanson, M.; Chen, E. (2007). Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors in Adolescence: A Review of the Literature. J Behav Med (30), 263-285. Hinkley, T.; Crawford, D.; Salmon, J.; Okely, A.D.; Hesketh, K. (2008). Preschool children and physical activity. A review of correlates. Am J Prev Med (34), 435-441. Kersey, M.; Lipton, R.; Quin, M.T.; Lantos, J.D. (2010). Overweight in Latino preschoolers: Do parental health beliefs matter? Am J Health Behav (34), 340-348. Nemet, D.; Geva, D.; Eliakim A. (2011): Health promotion intervention in low socioeconomic kindergarten children. The Journal of Pediatrics. Nemet, D.; Geva, D.; Meckel, Y.; Eliakim A. (2012). Health related knowledge and preferences in low socio-economic kindergarteners. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. Sallis, J.F.; Prochaska, J.J.; Taylor, W.C. (2000). A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Medicine and science in sports and exercise (32), 963-975. Strauss, A.L. (1994). Basics of qualitative social research [Grundlagen qualitativer Sozialforschung]. Munich: Fink. Strauss, A.L.; Corbin, J. (1996). Grounded Theory. Basics of qualitative social research [Grundlagen qualitativer Sozialforschung]. Weinheim: Psychologie Verlags Union. WHO (1986). Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. World Health Organization: Geneva. WHO (2008). Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. World Health Organization: Geneva.
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