16 SES 03 B, ICT as a Tool to Support Students and Pre-Service Teachers
Parallel Paper Session
The PAC Research Project was twofold: firstly, to evaluate the effectiveness of the programmer "Cooperating to Learn _Learning to Cooperate" (CL _LC) in contributing to the improvement of educational practices that promote school inclusion of all students, and secondly, to analyze what characteristics and conditions of the counseling-training processes of advice for the introduction of such a development programme help effectiveness. In the last ECER Congress held in Berlin it [GRAD] presented the results of the project relative to the second of the goals: the analysis of counseling-training process undertaken (Lake et al., 2011). In this communication we present the results for the first purpose: evaluation of the program itself CL_LC.
This research project, has been developed by the GRAD (Research Group on Care Diversity, University of Vic). GRAD belongs to the CIES. network which stands for (Collaboration in Social and Educational Inclusion). The central aim of CIES is research into the improvement of inclusion in educational practices. The network is GRAD with four other research groups.
The Program CL_LC (Cooperating to Learn_Learning to Cooperate) is based on the principles of cooperative learning, following the approach of Kagan (1999) and Johnson and Johnson (1997) , and it has been developed by GRAD. As proposed by Pujolàs (2008), the program articulates a set of educational resources organized in three closely related intervention areas: area A, which includes resources linked to improve the cohesion of the group; area B, which contains a series of co-operative activity structures to organise the teaching of the content of the curriculum areas, this is work in teams to teach curriculum as a resource, and the area of intervention C, which includes actions aimed at teaching pupils and students, in an explicit and systematic way, to work in teams.
The overall research question related to the evaluation of the CL_LC it focused if the actions planned in the three areas where the program helped to improve the performance of all students, regardless of their characteristics and educational needs, because in turn improved the classroom climate and group cohesion. More specifically, we wanted to check if the proceeding under the program contributes to improve: (a) the attitude of solidarity among all students, (b) social classroom climate, (c) group cohesion, and consequently (d) academic performance. At same time, for to attribute the improvements achieved to cooperative learning, it was necessary to check whether the structure of the resulting activity had the essential elements of cooperative learning, for which we had evaluated the degree of cooperativity (Pujolàs, 2009) of the teams formed within the classrooms where the program was applied AC _AC.
The theoretical frameworks of research for the evaluation of the program are, on the one hand, studies on cooperative learning and Johnson and Johnson noted in (1997) and Kagan (1999), in addition to Slavin (1985) and Putnam (1993), on the other hand, the principles of inclusive classroom approach developed by Ainscow (1995), Stainback and Stainback (1999), Stainback (2001) and Porter (2001), and finally, third, the research approaches evaluation of programs proposed by Stake (2006).
AIinscow, M. (1995). Necesidades especiales en el aula. Madrid: UNESCO-Narcea. Echeita, G. & Martín, E. (1990). Interacción social y aprendizaje. In C. Coll, J. Palacios & A. Marchesi (Comp.). Desarrollo psicológico y educación. Vol. III. (pp. 49-67). Madrid: Alianza, . Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T. & Holubec, E. J. (1999). El aprendizaje cooperativo en el aula. Buenos Aires: Paidós. Johnson, R.T. & Johnson, D.W. (1997). Una visió global de l’aprenentatge cooperatiu. Suports, 1 (1), 54-64. Kagan, S. (1999). Cooperative Learning. San Clemente: Resources for Teachers, Inc. Kagan, S. (2001). Kagan Structures and Learning Together. What is the Difference?. Kagan Online Magazine. Avalaible at: http://www.kaganonline.com/KaganClub/ FreeArticles.html Lago, J.R., Naranjo,M., Segués,T., Soldevila J.(2011). Introduction of cooperative learning to move towards inclusive classrooms through a training and counselling process: PAC Project. ECER 201. Berlin, september, 2011 Parrilla, A. (1992). El profesor ante la integración escolar: Investigación y formación, Capital Federal (Argentina): Ed. Cincel. Porter, G.L. (2001). Elements crítics per a escoles inclusives. Creant l’escola inclusiva: una perspectiva canadenca basada en quinze anys d’experiència. Suports. Revista Catalana d’Educació Especial i Atenció a la Diversitat. 5 (1), 6-14. Pujolàs, P. (2008). 9 ideas clave. El aprendizaje cooperativo. Barcelona: Graó. Pujolàs, P. (2009). La calidad en los equipos de aprendizaje cooperativo. Algunas consideraciones para el cálculo del grado de cooperatividad. Revista de Educación, 349, 225-239. Putman, J.W. (1993). Cooperative Learning and Strategies for Inclusions. Celebrating Diversity in the Classroom. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. Slavin, R. E., et alt. (Eds.) (1985). Learning to cooperate, cooperating to learn. New York: Plenum Press. Stainbak, S. B. (2001). Components crítics en el desenvolupament de l’educació inclusiva. Suports. Revista Catalana d’Educació Especial i Atenció a la Diversitat. 5 (1), 26-31. Stainback, W. & Stainback, S. (1999). Aulas inclusivas. Madrid: Narcea. Stake, R.E. (2006). Evaluación comprensiva y evaluación basada en estándares. Barcelona: Editorial Graó.
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