05 SES 02, Student (Dis-)Engagement : Narratives, Attitudes towards Services and Supports, and Educational Programme Choice (2)
In a recent article Rotherham-Borus and colleagues (2012) claim that many of the existing evidence-based programs (EBIs) may ‘overserve’ the majority of users, and that their essential needs could be met with less time consuming and less expensive alternatives. For others implementation of brief EBIs with lower intensity and fewer sessions than typical EBIs may function as a tool to screen and link to more comprehensive and intensive programs. Comprehensive student problems together with limited resources also make brief effective interventions highly relevant to many schools; it is important to establish cost-effective universal preventive interventions that are practically functional and result-giving for both teachers and students.
In accordance with this perspective, the “Brief School-wide Behavior Support program” (BSBS) was developed and tested in a sample of Norwegian primary schools. The program has a multitheoretical foundation drawing from social interaction learning theory and coercion theory (Patterson, 1982), social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1978) and social ecological theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) and. It also builds on theoretical principles of functional behavior analysis and behavior modification in school (e.g. Greer, 2002). The BSBS program was established on an evidence-based platform. This implies that the included components and strategies explicitly match research related to the development of behavioral misconduct, risk and protective factors, and effective approaches to prevention and management of behavior problems in school (Ogden et al., 2012).
The focus is on universal interventions and consists of school-wide in-service training for school personnel in effective and preventive behavior management strategies. The goal is to prevent and reduce student problem behavior by promoting the staff’s beliefs and skills to purposefully establish learning environments that support appropriate behavior through positive and collective strategies. The environment both inside and outside classrooms is targeted, and thewhole school staff is included in the training, not only teachers (i.e. all teachers, assistants, special educators, after-school personnel, the principal, and any health nurse, librarian or school counsellor).
The BSBS program included 30 hours of standardized training and lasted four full days during one school year. The training was locally organized and provided a combination of lectures, demonstration, training, coaching and “home-work. Core program components included 1) the school-wide approach, 2) systematic positive reinforcement of expected prosocial behavior, 3) corrections or mild consequences following problem behavior, 4) good directions, and 5) establishing functional support and information systems. No coaching or technical support was offered.
In the present study we examined if the BSBS program had any immediate main effects on respectively a) perceived staff collective efficacy, b) self-efficacy, c) behavior supporting practices, and d) on the level of student problem behavior. Second, we examined if a) school size, b) percent of staff without formal training, c) implementation quality, and d) program dosage moderated the outcomes. In this paper the evaluation results are presented and discussed.
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