04 SES 07 A, Developing Inclusive Education
There is an increased global discussion on implementing inclusive education (Cooper and Jacobs, 2011), which has generated an interest amongst policymakers, researchers and practitioners on the questions of ‘how’ to make education inclusive. However, implementing inclusive education has diverse implications for different parts of the world, particularly between western or developed and developing countries (Armstrong, Armstrong and Spandagou, 2011). As Peters (2003) state, inclusive education may be implemented with different goals, based on different motives, reflecting different classifications of SEN and providing services within different contexts. In the western world, issues are mainly related to efforts in phasing out special schooling for students with SEN and their inclusion in regular education. However, for the developing world a central issue is providing Education for All (EFA), when some 140 million students do not attend school (UNESCO, 2005).
In western countries, Pijl and Meijer (1997) have suggested three broad factors in implementing inclusive education: a) external: (e.g. legislation and funding), b) school factor: (providing special services in schools and the support system), c) teacher: (attitude, knowledge, skills). Few studies have pointed out the role of parents and local communities in scaling up inclusive practices (Alur, 2010) with research in developing countries remaining significantly limited.
It is important to remember that due to difference in context and backgrounds, developing countries have different sets of factors, actors and pace in making education inclusive. Efforts have been made under the flagships of international and local organisations on those lines in developing countries, however, not much is known about their effects. This leads to a serious gap regarding the effects of these concrete actions on inclusive education. We argue that if the efforts undertaken were known to be effective, via empirical evidence, in increasing the numbers of students with SEN in regular schools then these efforts could be replicated in other developing countries. Therefore, this study answers the questions: 1) What concrete actions at policy, school, teacher and parents/public level have been taken to make education inclusive for students with SEN in developing countries? 2) What are the effects of these actions in including students with SEN in regular schools of developing countries?
Alur.M. (2010). Family perspectives- parents in partnerships. Nasen, Armstrong, D., Armstrong, A. C., & Spandagou, I. (2011). Inclusion: By choice or by chance? International Journal of Inclusive Education, 15(1), 29-39. Cooper, P., & Jacob, B. (2011). From inclusion to engagement . West Sussex, U.K: Willey-blackwell. Peters, S. J. (2003). Inclusive education: Achieving education for all by including those with disabilities and special education needsThe World Bank. Retrieved http://www.inclusioneducativa.org/content/documents/Peters_Inclusive_Education.pdf Pijl, S. J., & Meijer, C. J. W. (1997). Factors in inclusion: A framework. In S. J. Pijl, & Meijer, C.J.W, and Hegarty. S (Eds.), Inclusive education - a global agenda (pp. 8-13). London: Routledge. UNDP. (2011) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 15 June, 2012. http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/hdr/human_developmentreport2011/ UNESCO. (2005). Guidelines for inclusion: Ensuring access to education for all No. (ED-2004/WS/39 cld 17402) UNESCO.
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